Педагогические науки

В статье рассматривается влияние дополнительного образования на развитие личности подростка. Раскрываются особенности и основные направления деятельности учреждений дополнительного образования.

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At the present time, modern society has an interest in raising social and active citizens. In "The national doctrine of education in the Russian Federation for the period till 2025", in the federal law "About Education in the Russian Federation" it is noted that the social order focuses institutions of additional education of children on providing and development of social qualities of the pupils.

Additional education is considered as a process of learning, education and development, aimed at meeting the interests and needs of children, based on the variability and constant updating of content.

The basis of additional education is large-scale educational block, which includes more than 16 thousand institutions, attended by more than 10 million children between the ages of 6 to 18 years.

Currently, additional education of children is presented by the following directions:

  • artistic — aesthetic;
  • scientific and technical;
  • sports and technical;
  • ecological and biological;
  • sports and improving;
  • tourist and local history;
  • military patriotic;
  • social and pedagogical;
  • culturological;
  • economical and legal.

Educational influence of additional education is very big. The participation of adolescents in the area of ​​additional education on interests allows each child to find something for everyone to succeed in creative activities, enhance their self-esteem, self-assertion in a team of peers, improve their status in the eyes of teachers, parents and the immediate environment.

Employment of children in nonlearning time promotes strengthening of self-discipline, self-organization, ability to plan the time.

During implementation of additional educational programs children receive the practical skills necessary for life form own opinion, individual attitude, develop the communicative culture, communicate in group of peers, so — study cooperation and coauthorship.

Therefore, additional education brings up, develops and promotes the mediated socialization of the identity of the child at all stages of his growing.

The value of additional education of children consists that it strengthens a variable component of the general education, promotes the practical application of knowledge and skills received at school, stimulates informative motivation of children.

The originality of additional education is shown in purposeful voluntary use by the child of time, free from lessons, for full development of the potential opportunities, in freedom of choice of activities, the educational program, in an opportunity to change kinds of activity, collective, the teacher and in the creative nature of educational process.

The main functions of the additional education are:

  • educational — training of the child for additional educational programs, getting them new knowledge;
  • educational-defining clear moral guidance, discreet introduction to culture;
  • creative — creation of flexible system for realization of individual creative interests of the personality;
  • compensatory — providing the child with certain guarantees of success in his chosen fields of creative activity;
  • recreational — the organization of substantial leisure as spheres of restoration of psychophysical forces of the child;
  • professional orientation — formation of steady interest in socially important kinds of activity, assistance to definition of vital plans of the child;
  • integration — creation of the certain psychological climate allowing to unite children and adults within this concrete institution;
  • socialization function — development by the child of social experience, acquisition of skills of reproduction of social communications by him and the personal qualities necessary for life;
  • self-realization function — self-determination of the child in socially and culturally significant forms of activity, accommodation of success situations by him, personal self-development.

In order, that children in the conditions of additional education could show the talents, skillful support from adults is necessary. The task of teachers is to form a personality, capable of creative self, to develop in children the desire for self-knowledge, self-education, self-improvement and self-government.

Work of creative associations, sections, clubs on interests is directed to assimilation by the child necessary for life in the society of social experience and formation of the system of values accepted by society that is socialization of the personality. Various extracurricular activities promote versatile disclosure of specific features of the child, development at them of interest in different types of art, desire to participate actively in the productive, approved by society activity. Children learn to cooperate with each other, to care for the companions, to put themselves to the place of other person.

To sum up, additional education is a necessary component of the modern education. Being available to everyone, it opens for younger generation of a door to comprehension of elements of art, sports, crafts and technical creativity, gives the opportunity to demonstrate their leadership and organizational skills.