Формирование отношения к Дональду Трампу в российском медиапространстве



Статья посвящена формированию отношения к американскому лидеру в российском медиадискурсе на фоне происходящих в мире, и в США в частности, событий. В ходе исследования, на основе контент-анализа публикаций в СМИ, автором были зафиксированы определенные изменения на протяжении периода времени в характере публикаций, в которых упоминается президент Северной Америки. На основе результатов исследования были выделены четыре этапа формирования отношения в российских СМИ к Дональду Трампу.

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The surveys of public opinion formation show that mass media has a major impact on public consciousness, forming a perception and interpretation of life phenomenon [4]. Creating an media image of some government, mass media shape an emotional coloring and produce a subjective image [5].

The image of the USA in Russian media scene has been mixed. Political steps of American government are often reflected as actions of an aggressor state with a formation of feat image[3]. The public perception of the USA represents introducing of foreign policy, Americans and their lifestyle, economic and political development and also, the one of the most essential component — the image of the political leader. In the context of the current situation the figure of the 45th president of the States, Donald Trump, has a special interest for the study. In this work the author traced the dynamics of the Russian media's attitude to the current US President Donald Trump.

To trace the evaluation curve of Trump`s image, the author selected electronic versions of several media because of a qualitative content analysis. The two most cited news agencies, TASS and RIA Novosti, were selected for the analysis, as well as an electronic version of the most cited newspaper «Kommersant» [9]. The author analyzed more than 500 media materials of titles and content from June 2015 to June 2017 and revealed their tonality, semantic orientation and key descriptive components. In addition, the author analyzed the results of public opinion polls (conducted by VTsIOM and the Levada Center), which allow to reveal the dependence of the attitude of Russians to American president on the media.

During the media analysis of D. Trump`s image, created by Russian media, the author outlined the following stages, characterizing the attitude in the media to Trump: "the encourage of sympathy, "support," "jubilation," "disappointment," and at the same time the phenomenon of "justification". The author will consider them in more detail.

The attention of the Russian media to Donald Trump has been intensified in June 2015, when he announced he was going to participate in the presidential race. Incidentally, that time anti-American sentiments reached their peak [10] (81% of Russians treated to the USA "badly", only 12% "well").

Over the summer of this year, mostly neutral and positive coloring publications are observed in the media, but in general Trump was described as a "frivolous" showman and businessman, for example: "a man who added freshness to the election campaign, but who is completely unfit for president of The United States"(Kommersant, June 27, 2015),"the most eccentric "(Kommersant, July 22, 2015),"another trick of billionaire Donald Trump"(TASS, June 20, 2015). However, at this stage, certain statements made by Trump give grounds to believe that he is able to direct his aspirations to normalize relations with Russia. This stage can be described as "the encourage of sympathy."

The next stage (the end of 2015 — beginning of 2016), or the stage of "support", is characterized by the fact that in the Russian media the candidate has a support and sympathies. This is due to the fact that the future of American political course depends on the election results, and Trump is characterized as a candidate who sympathizes with Russia. An example of this is the statements in the media: "Donald Trump is the only Republican in the race who welcomes Russia" (Kommersant, January 19, 2016).

Moreover, the media appealed to the statements of Russian President Vladimir Putin: "Russian President Vladimir Putin called Donald Trump" a bright and talented person" and "absolute leader of the presidential race" (Kommersant, 03.01. .2016).

During the summer of 2016 the public "support" was gaining strength.

At this time in the media space, emotionally colored units, as "eccentric" and "billionaire", were reducing. Media more often focused on statements of Trump which arouse sympathy and certain hopes for the Russian readership. For example, Trump "may consider recognizing the Republic of Crimea as a Russian territory" (Kommersant, July 31, 2016). At the same time, opinion polls show that Russians generally believe that the victory of Donald Trump at the elections will improve relations between Russia and the United States [8].

The period of "jubilation", or Trump's winning the elections in the November 2016, was marked by an emotional upsurge. Trump's victory caused "applause in the Duma" (RIA Novosti, 09.11.2016). Russia connects great expectations with the new president and expects détente. According to the Levada Center, the election of Donald Trump markedly improved the attitude of Russians to the United States. From November to February, the number of Russians who are "treat badly" to the USA fell by seven percentage points (from 56% to 49%), the number of sympathizers in America, on the contrary, increased significantly (from 28% to 37%) [6].

Lifting moods in the media continue to dominate for some time after Trump's inauguration and ... till American attacks in Syria. In the beginning of April period of "disappointment" came.

Trump's actions are characterized by harsh statements of Russian political leaders, who are quoted actively: "Medvedev said that with attack on Syria Trump proved his lack of independence" (RIA Novosti, April 7, 2017), "Putin: the level of confidence to the United States under Trump has deteriorated" (RIA Novosti, April 7, 2017).

Certainly, such messages in the media could not but reflect on public opinion. In mid-April the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) published data from the public opinion poll, according to which Russians began to treat Trump worse [7]. From 7% in March to 39% of negative responses in April. "And although the hopes for a new "thaw" in bilateral relations have not completely disappeared, our compatriots have less optimistic expectations for Trump", — Valery Fyodorov, head of the VTsIOM, said.

However, the same stage of "disappointment" is supplemented by an attempt to rehabilitate the American president. This is characterized by some isolation of Trump from the general image of the US [2]. For example: "Putin: do not judge Trump for the decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement" (TASS, 02.06.2017) or "The administration of President Donald Trump is trying to make the Republicans to soften the draft law on sanctions against Russia "(" Kommersant ", June 22, 2017).

Attitudes to the American leader in the Russian media in general can be described as positive. However, after the inauguration of Trump, significant shifts towards a negative evaluation of his image were revealed. Accordingly, depending on the "political behavior" of the American president and his actions, the attitude to him and the US among Russians is changing. In general, the study allows us to state that the formation of attitudes to a new political leader of the US depends on media resources, which allows manipulating the mass consciousness of the audience.

Список литературы

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  3. Gudkov L. Otnoshenie k SSHA v Rossii i problema antiamerikanizma //Monitoring obshchestvennogo mneniya: ehkonomicheskie i social'nye peremeny. – 2002. – №. 2.
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  8. Rezul'taty oprosa «Na vash vzglyad, ch'ya pobeda na vyborah prezidenta SSHA v bol'shej stepeni sootvetstvuet nacional'nym interesam Rossii?» / VCIOM. [electronic resource]. – Access mode: https://wciom.ru/zh/print_q.php?s_id=1085&q_id=75417&date=10.07.2016 (reference date: 11.05.2017)
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