In a world that is becoming ever more internationalized and where intercultural communication is of growing importance for anybody who does not want to be overtaken by this development, there is a growing need for different sorts of dictionaries that can support the necessary communication.
So many times I have said to myself and have heard someone said, ‘I’ll look it up in the dictionary’. Why we say so? Because we rely on dictionaries to provide us with definitions of words, and to tell us how to spell them and we think that if the dictionary says so, then it is so. Dictionaries differ as to how much material they offer and how they present it. I took a few dictionaries, examined them, and very soon I noticed that they were all different. They are all recognizably dictionaries, with a more or less alphabetical list of words and information about them, but they have different formats, highly variable numbers of pages, a variety of page layouts, and so on. I also came across with some lexicographic difficulties of the presentation of Phraseological Units.
It’s well-known fact that English phraseology with its great wealth and variety of form and meaning presents formidable difficulties both for students of the language and for translators. Its numerous set expressions are often both figurative and diverse in stylistic colouring. It is essential to mention what is phraseological units. Phraseological units are structurally separable language units with completely or partially transferred meanings. (Кунин А.В. Большой англо-русский фразеологический словарь.) Because of their complexity, PHRASES and IDIOMS are often dealt with together in the GENERAL DICTIONARY towards the end of the entry, or in separate paragraphs.
Being led by needs, Man has to use some certain language abilities which help him explicit his needs often used by means of phraseological units. So that, it’s very essential to analyze phraseological units and their usage in language in different dictionaries and we know any illustrative examples in dictionaries are either citation from literary sources or sentences invented by compilers. The number and nature of examples depend on the size and purpose of the work book.
By way of illustration we shall consider following entries for the phrase with the verb Love.
Rundell M. (Editor-in-Chief) Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners
1. [ never progressive] to be very strongly attracted to someone in an emotional and sexual way: I love you; We love each other, and we’re going to get married.
*(Collocation) adverbs frequently used with Love1- dearly, deeply, passionately, really, truly.
2. [never progressive] to care very much about someone, especially members of your family or close friends: She loved her children with all her heart.* Love sb dearly I’ve known Jack for years and I love him dearly.
3. [never passive]mainly spoken to like or enjoy something very much: Lucy loves chocolate. *love to do sth; *love doing sth: *love nothing more/better than;
- Phrases. Don’t you just love it; I’d love to; I love it; love them and leave them; love to hate; you’re/ he’s etc going to love this spoken 1 used for saying that someone will enjoy what you are going to tell them 2 used for saying that someone will not like what you are going to tell them.
- Metaphor. When you love someone very deeply, it feels as if you are physically weak or falling over. The effect that an attractive person has on you like being hit or knocked over by them. Ex: Just looking at him makes me go weak at the knees; I fell for Molly in a big way; Do you remember the first time you fell in love?;
Кунин А.В. Большой англо-русский фразеологический словарь.
Phrases with Love
- Babe (child) of love дитя любви, внебрачный ребенок
- Calf (puppy)love детская влюбленность, юношеское увлечение [ puppy love первонач. амер.] Young Jon Forsyte and she — of course- but that was ages ago! Calf love! And Winifred smiled… ( J. Galsworthy, ‘Swan Song’,part I, ch. II)
- Cupboard love корыстная любовь, любовь с расчетом. Then, with the rather bitter cynicism of the old,he wondered for a second whether it was not cupboard love which made Irene put up with him.(J. Galsworthy, ‘Indian Summer of a Forsyte’, ch. IV)
- Fall in love (with) влюбится; Mrs. Dot. …he’s not at all the sort of boy who falls in and out of love with every pretty girl he meets. (W.S.Maugham, ‘ Mrs. Dot’, act II) etc.
Rundell M. (Editor-in-Chief) Macmillan Collocation Dictionary for Learners of English
Be very strongly attracted to someone; to care very much about someone
- Adv+V deeply dearly, deeply, greatly, passionately, really, truly, unconditionally: He loves his family deeply.
- In a way that is easy to see clearly, obviously: She clearly loved Sidney as more than a conventional friend.
- Secretly secretly: Mary secretly loves Edward, but he thinks of her as a friend.
- In a way that is sincere genuinely: Jim does genuinely love Karen, there’s no doubt about it. * When someone loves another person, you can say that they are in love(with them): I was in love with my best friend’s brother.
- When someone starts to love with another person, you can say that they fall in love(with them): she had fallen in love with James the first time she met him.
From these examples given below we can exactly see differences among three dictionaries. All definitions and phrases are various. The general problem among them they have not any etymology of the verb “Love” and phrases with Love. Definition and phrases which are given in Rundell M. (Editor-in-Chief) Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners are good but there aren’t more phrases which we come across during our speech. Among these three dictionaries only phraseological dictionary by Kunin has more than 28 phrases for the verb Love.
Furthermore there is also lexicographic problem of definitions in a bilingual dictionary. The explanation of the meaning may be achieved by a group of synonyms which together give a fairly general idea; but one synonym is never sufficient for the purpose because no absolute synonyms exist. Besides, if synonyms are the only type of explanation used, the reader will be placed in a various circle of synonymic reference, with not a single word actually explained. Definitions serve the purpose much better. These are of two main types. If they are only concerned with things fir which words are names, they are termed encyclopedic. The meaning of the word may be also explained by examples, i.e. contextually.
The study of Lexicography and presentation of Phraseological Units in different dictionaries is very important for many reasons. We investigate them not only for linguistics. They give us an opportunity to gain a deeper insight into our own languages and make for the process of integration which inevitably lead to the creation of informational “world culture”. Besides, we still need more complete dictionary which has more phrases with words and examples are given in it.