Происхождение фразеологических единиц, обозначающих национальный колорит и их специфику в языке


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Статья посвящена изучению когнитивно-семантической структуры цветообозначений в английском, узбекском и русском языках. Данные стратегии могут быть полезными преподавателям в связи с тем, что развивают не только языковые навыки, но и навыки критического мышления, а также помогают мотивировать учащихся к дальнейшему изучению иностранного языка.

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Phraseological unit is sustainable combination of words, which is characterized by constant lexical composition and grammatical structure of the known carriers of the language value (in most cases — Hand-shaped) is not derivable from the values ​​of the constituent components of the idiom. This value is reproduced in a speech in accordance with the historically established norms of consumption.

In this part we investigated the origin of phraseological units denoting national coloring with adjectives in their composition. Analyzed and systematized information obtained as a result of the search, aimed at clarifying the origin of phraseology and their semantic link with the nation, whose name refers to the adjective, we came to the conclusion that Phraseologism value associated with the nation, which represents the adjective in its composition in 13 cases (Australian ballot, Chinese compliment, Dutch courage, Egyptian darkness, English breakfast, go Dutch, Greek gift, Indian summer, Irish coffee, Russian roulette, Scotch verdict, Turkish delight, Welsh rabbit)

AUSTRALIAN BALLOT- (Australian Bulletin) — secret ballot

... "Australia can be proud of its history of development of the electoral process. We became the inventor of the process of secret ballot (so far, this method is called the Australian vote in elections to the parliament), this method was applied for the first time in the history of the Australian colonies in South Australia and Victoria in 1856, "...

CHINESE COMPLIMENT- (Chinese compliment) -pretended interest

In Chinese culture, the implementation of the speech is transformed into a maxim of approval specific exaggerated form, due to the Confucian heritage, deeply penetrated into the national character of the Chinese people. According to the social ideals of Confucius highly moral person is different humanity and a sense of duty, which determine the demeanor of a noble man, a man able to see the positive qualities and appreciate them, expressing their approval. But blind devotion followers of Confucius every word the teacher helped make his teaching into a dogma, and over time in Confucianism to the fore not the essence, but only the external form, which manifests itself mainly in the form of demonstrating dedication, respect, good location. It does not matter what you think and feel, and what you should think and feel in this situation — according to generally accepted ideas about the moral, decent. That is why today the content of such displays of courtesy, both praise and especially compliment we hear from a representative of the Chinese people do not always correspond to reality, and often serve only to demonstrate the necessary etiquette rules. So, a compliment to the voice of the Chinese culture took the form of ritual, that is an ordered system of speech acts.

DUTCH COURAGE — (Dutch courage) — drunken brave

In 1650, Dr. Francis Sylvius Dutch invented gin. In Holland gin originally was considered a medicine and was sold in pharmacies as a remedy for indigestion, gout and gallstones.

During the Thirty Years' War, British soldiers received gin before the battles. He was a great success thanks to its action warms in the cold and relaxing and calming effect. The soldiers were fighting bravely. Because the British, who fought in the Dutch Republic, started calling Dutch gin "Dutch courage or daring." The expression is often used for the name of the product, ie gin.

EGYPTIAN DARKNESS — (Egyptian darkness) — total darkness

Source — the Bible. One of the plagues: multi-day darkness brought upon Egypt as a punishment for disobedience to God Pharaon.

In the Old Testament (Exodus, Ch. 10, p. 22) refers to one of the miracles that made the prophet Moses: "he put forth his hand toward heaven, and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days."

ENGLISH BREAKFAST — (English breakfast) are dense breakfast

English breakfast — a meal that consists of several courses, traditional desserts, cereals, cooked main meals, tea with milk, toast with marmalade. The options are unlimited quantities. The term is used to distinguish it from the more simple "continental" breakfast, usually consisting of tea, coffee or milk and fruit juice with croissants or pastries.

GO DUTCH — (walk in Dutch) — to pay for refreshments chipped

According to one version, the origin of the expression is associated with the concept of "Dutch door." Earlier, in the homes of farmers door consisted of two equal parts. Another version says that this is due to the Danish etiquette. In the Netherlands, there was nothing unusual in the fact that everyone was paying for itself when visiting schools. However, British rivalry with the Netherlands during the Anglo-Dutch wars gave rise to a few sentences with the adjective "Dutch" having a negative connotation.

GREEK GIFT — (Greek gift) — dangerous gift

Expression used to mean the gifts to be feared, that is, to what they are fraught with death to take them out. Arose from the legendary tales of the Trojan War Greeks bearing (Greeks) to penetrate the besieged Troy, built a huge wooden horse and left him at the walls of the city of the Trojans, unaware tricks pulled the horse into the city. At night, hidden in the horse soldiers came out of it, killed the guard and opened the city gates, let returning Greeks even when they are captured and Troy.

IRISH COFFEE — (Irish coffee) — coffee with cream and whiskey

It is known that the weather in Ireland behaves like a lady with a mercurial character. And therefore, and failures of the flight schedule common phenomenon. In one of the next rainy days of their way to New York aircraft was forced to return to the airport of Fines due to nasty weather. This fact, by itself, is not pleased passengers, and a string of would-be travelers reached out to a local restaurant in the hope eat something delicious and warms the body and soul.

Thus, Phraseological unity — motivated units with a single holistic value arising from the merger of the values ​​of lexical components. (Greek gift, Chinese compliment, Irish coffee, Scotch verdict, Welsh uncle, Dutch courage, Swiss roll, French window). Phraseological combinations — momentum, in which one of the components of phraseological associated value, which manifests itself only in connection with a strictly limited number of concepts and their verbal designations. (Indian summer, English breakfast, Russian roulette, Australian ballot, Egyptian darkness).

Список литературы

  1. Амосова Н.Н. “Основы английской фразеологии.” – Ленинград : ЛГУ, 1961. – c. 207
  2. Антрушина Г.Б. Афанасьева, Морозова Н.Н. “Лексикология английского языка” – Москва : Академия, 2004. –c. 287
  3. Кунин А.В. “ Курс фразеологии современного английского языка.” – Дубна : Феникс, 2005. – c. 64