Мастерство учителя при проведении воспитательных работ


педагогические науки

В статье освещается о педагогическом мастерстве учителя при проведении воспитательных работ. Умения строить взаимоотношения с учениками и разрешать проблемные, конфликтные ситуации.

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Graduates of pedagogical universities often complain about the inability to conduct spiritual and educational work at school (Lyceum, College). For many teachers, the development of teacher skills is a more difficult process than the development of teaching skills. Makarenko, considering the work of the teacher, said that the activities of the teacher is, in essence, the activities of the organizer. And the skill of the teacher is nothing but the skill of the organizer of children's lives. The skill of a teacher is a combination of theory and practice.

Basic skills of the teacher. Knowledge and skills based on them-the basis of the content of the skill of the teacher. The important skills of the teacher include: the ability to correctly perceive the processes that occur in the world of children, each individual child; the ability to analyze the ratio "goal-means-result" in relation to the choice of the situation; the ability to demand and trust; the ability to quickly navigate and switch attention; the ability to play with children; the ability to assess the situation from different sides; the ability to establish contacts with children in the process of educational, labor, sports and extracurricular activities; the ability to implement an individual approach, to develop the initiative of children, to help children in difficult times, to trust the opinion of the student team; constantly consult with students, to study their opinion; the ability to spare the pride of students, to protect the weak, shy from ridicule of their comrades; the ability to make reasonable use of various forms of self-government in each student to seek and find the positive qualities, not to divide students into loved and unloved, the irreconcilable attitude to any evil, injustice, dishonesty, moral corruption; the ability to shape students ' moral orientation, to develop their ability to defend their beliefs, based on a clear understanding of good and evil.

The structure of the skill of the tutor. The skill of the teacher as a holistic structure is divided into three subsystems: technological, socio-psychological (attitude) and ethical.

The Technological subsystem (the impact of the team). An important place in the technological subsystem of the teacher's skill is occupied by events. Requirements for educational activities: 1) the event should not be accidental; 2) should be considered as an independent part of the entire system of spiritual and educational education of students; 3) each educational event is prepared and conducted comprehensively. It is important for a young teacher to master the technology of collective creative activity, taking into account the principles of creative development of the team: 1. Creation of collective on the basis of ideals of democratic civil society, idea of national independence; 2. Building a team on the principles of turnover of the entire asset, collective planning, organization and analysis of common Affairs, and relationships, and actions; 3. Organization of socially significant ("for people"), personally significant ("creatively — otherwise why"), artistically-instrumented (rituals, laws, traditions); 4, the position of the teacher as a senior friend, able to cooperate with pupils. Stages (stages) of collective creative Affairs (CTD) (six of them); 1) preliminary work of the team: What and for whom will we do? When? Where? Who? With whom? Who should be the organizer? 2) collective planning: the plan is developed in microgroups, they give suggestions for the General plan. Proposals are discussed, approved; 3) preparation of the TCD: the Council of the case, the interim governing body is elected. The task of the Council is a joint decision of questions, the specification of the plan, control over preparation and holding of the exchange experience; 4) implementation of KTD: realization of collective planning; 5) collective summing up: together we discuss the results of the case, what we did and why? What didn't work out and why? 6) consequence, which discusses the possibility of using the experience gained in further work.

II. Subsystem of relations. The skill of the teacher is the art of orienting in children's relationships. A skilled leader should know the intra-and inter-collective dependencies in the children's environment, the nature of contradictions and conflicts. Researchers of interpersonal relations in the team distinguish such contradictions: the contradiction between the official leader of the class team (head, trade Union, member of the Committee) and the influence of individual students, who are considered an informal leader; the discrepancy between the goals pursued by the organization of activity (official plan), the goals of the actual personal; the discrepancy prestigious aspirations of the student and of his contributions to classroom (group) staff; lack of pupil well-developed volitional, self-discipline, on the one hand, and the demands of caregiver, on the other. An experienced teacher includes each student (especially those who have relations with peers unfavorably) in the system of collective relations, providing him a worthy place in the team: puts the nearest pedagogical task in working with each student; creates an atmosphere of mutual goodwill, mutual assistance, partnership; takes into account the educational impact of the family; organizes joint activities that enhance the contacts of children; applies equally to all students.

III. Ethical subsystem dictates the rules of the relationship between the teacher and the students. The focus of the teacher and the team should be motives — in the name of what the school (Lyceum, College), class (group), individual students. The main thing today is not the ability to organize a business, but the ability to captivate students with bright ideals of building a democratic civil society, how to form these ideals? This should be done based on a system of principles that justify the process of education: the unity of life and education; the unity of children's independence and self-education; the unity of moral norms and spiritual and moral behavior; the unity of citizenship and humanity; the connection of ethical and aesthetic; approach to the child with an optimistic hypothesis; the unity of requirements and trust; respect for the personality of the student; increasing self-esteem; consideration of gender (sexual) differences; care of physical and spiritual and moral health of children; the principle of action. The skill of the teacher in each case is creativity. The teacher should look for and find creative solutions in the approach to children, in the choice of means of influence on pupils.