Вопросы воспитания молодого поколения в трудах ученных древнего востока и запада


педагогические науки

Будущее любой страны зависит от развития их детей, и поэтому образование широко считается областью общества. Из истории известно, что даже современные предметы стали предметом мысли людей миллионы лет назад. Собирая теории и идеи об одном конкретном предмете, становится возможным привнести в науку тему. Работы, выполненные многими учеными древнего Востока и Запада, были затем изучены в современных специальных предметах. В данной статье представлены некоторые особенности работ исторических выпускников с их ролью в воспитании молодежи.

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As far as the world has been created by it's creator, there have been so many attempts that can eventually could change the world itself. But in all the time and places knowledge was the only thing which helped to the mankind. Men was developed by learning and learning, he could reach as an intellectual perfect means of creation through winning ignorance. Education and upbringing were next ones made us incomparable to another animals. The life and education span is to be gotten better by the ancestors to their predecessors.

The socialization began in the East, then it was extended in western parts of the globe. Looking at the manuscripts of world's first philosophical theories knowledge was estimated to be the backbone of ruling the society and government. There are some differences between the ideas of educating children in Oriental countries comparing to western ones.

The first theories in education were written in religious books in Orient. Knowledge was believed to be a broad outlook in western cultures, but in East the knowledge was the way of thinking and having a deep faith in religion. Religion taught people to be respectful to each other. In the works of scholars in ancient writers were mainly dedicated to the youths' learning society in order to improve it. There are many examples of the books written by middle centuries philosophers. Traditions, culture, religion, society all of them are important notions to have an effective impact on childcare and upbringing. While reading the works by Farabi it is obvious that, according to oriental philosophy childcare should be done beautifully. According to Farabi, education can be done in two ways: voluntary and compulsory, depending on the character of each person. If the trainees are not inclined to study science or crafts, they are encouraged to be encouraged. If they are arbitrary and disobedient, they may resort to compelling methods. According to Farabi, intelligent people need to have a sharp mindset — to be cautious, to be good, to direct their abilities and perceptions to good things. Farooq, in his book The Intelligence, believes that a good man should combine twelve attributes. According to Abu Nasr Farabi, all the abilities and qualities of a person have two aspects. The first one is the natural hereditary nature, the second one is the qualities that are formed by experience, practice, and condition. It also stresses the need to take into account the attributes related to one's relationship with each other. Because of his practically suitable and effective ideas Farabi was called " Second teacher " after Arastu. He was the one who could translate the book by Arastu and he could successfully paraphrased it. The name of the books was "Metaphysics " His books have been one of the most useful books in teaching and educating children in all spheres including education.

Abu Ali Ibn Sina (980-1037), education is the only process makes people intellectual. The process involves mental and physical education, moral education and vocational training. In his work "The Law of Medicine" Ibn Sina gave a thought about transferring the child from the age of six to the teacher. The great superiors have to adhere to the principle of instruction in the learning process, especially in the process of exercising the power exercised by the child. Ibn Sina admits that teaching children in the community rather than individually teaching children. Ibn Sina's teachings on the results of the human mind, his knowledge, take a special place in the theory of teaching. He believes that the true nature of things is based on the motives of analyzing the outward appearance of things. Ibn Sina has developed the stages of development of the mind. The first step in perception is to explain the categories of mind. The second step is to perceive two different points of view. At the third stage of the development of mind is achieved through the perception of ideas. Then it is possible to say that it is real. As he had a quality of skills in medicine he also claimed that children should be educated when they are young, they should have an outlook to see the beauty in the world. Because beauty is an effective tool to educate and train an ideal generation.

Alisher Navoi attaches great importance to training in self-discipline, understanding and correcting errors and mistakes, is a mistaken and mistaken personality condition. Aware of the mistake and mistake, he is the one who is warned. Whoever turns to the confession, his error will disappear. Whoever gives proofs and gives alms, he will make a mistake. The more healing, the more likely his mistake will be, and the more he sees himself, the greater the dispute, the more profane he is among the people. That is, when a person makes mistakes, he says he is wrong — that's fine. If he gives proof to his mistake, his error will double more, "the scholar says. Regarding his knowledge on education it is irrefutable that he was a man who always favors "self-correction". By being more educated people can change the behavior of the others too. He was in favor of developing the logically challenged brains of youth as a means of self-correction.

There are many outstanding scholars who were on the way of improving the system of education in their countries by the means of methods and ideas about knowledge and human's behavior. One of them is Socrates, he had a lot of works based on the upbringing of children. Socrates's philosophical and pedagogical views is that achievement of the goal of discipline is to achieve a well-educated person and to elevate it morally. He defines the concept of courage, wisdom, moderation and justice in his doctrine. In his opinion, courage is to abandon fears, observe the rules of wisdom, and to teach the ways in which the good will be done in justice. There is only one good, knowledge. And one evil, ignorance. He was sure that there was no way to intelligence except going through the darkness of ignorance.

Next is Plato who is a famous Greek philosopher in Greece. Plato describes his ideas about the organization of education as "State" and "Law". In his opinion, the influence of adults on children appears in the content of moral attitudes in children. The feeling of emotion is the key to educating younger children. Plato is a game, a literary work, a legendary teaching tool. He notes that adults should watch the children's play, but they should not add any news to their play. Plato encourages the idea of ​​social upbringing of children in his work "State" and offers a specific structure of its organization. He claimed to begin the education of a child when he is young.

There are some common features of the notion in education such as training a person who has a broad outlook. In order to be more be civilized than other countries the authorities paid more attention to the development of their future generation. Knowledge was known as a way of being dominant in ruling the world. But in the East education was needed to bring up sensible and respectful children for the society. Not knowledge but strong faith and positive outlook were crucial for the state.

Список литературы

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  2. X.Ibragimov, SH.Abdullaeva - The theory of pedagogy.Tashkent.2008
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