The many wavelengths in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum are related with colour, a physical phenomenon of light, or visual experience (see Electromagnetic Radiation; Spectrum). Humans and some animals perceive colour as a sense, which is a complex neurophysiological process. Today's methods for specifying colour are part of a field of science called colorimetry and involve precise measurements based on the wavelengths of three basic colours. The same colour perception can be induced by several physical stimuli since the human eye does not operate like a spectral analysis computer. Thus, even though it lacks light with the wavelengths that correspond to yellow, a blend of red and green light of the appropriate intensities appears to be exactly the same as spectral yellow. By combining different ratios of red, blue, and green, any hue can be reproduced. As a result, these colours are referred to as the additive primary colours. When the light from these main hues is combined in equal amounts, white light is created. There are several complimentary colour pairs of pure spectral colours that, when combined additively, give off the same impression as white light. Several yellows and blues, greens and blues, reds and greens, and greens and violets are examples of these colour combinations. The most significant aspect of an object is its colour. It enhances the object's brightness and gives it a face.
The phenomenon of colour is complex for many reasons. From a physical perspective, multicoloring results from the interaction of light and an object.
Numerous coloured ray optical routes are reflected or absorbed by various things. Only reflected light may be seen by our eyes.
Hue, brightness, and saturation are a few examples of the color's physical properties. Here is the primary attribute of the colour, which is described by the terms "red," "green," and "blue," and it aids in helping us recognise various hues. The length of the light wave that an object reflects or absorbs determines the hue. All colours are chromatic, with the exception of black, white, and grey, which are achromatic.
Lightness refers to a color's position on a scale from black to white. It can be described as "dark" or "light."
The saturation determines the degree of chromaticity.
These physical characteristics account for a man's ability to distinguish between coloured and uncolored hues in all colours. The categories of natural events from a psychological perspective comprise the following processes:
- The motivational decision. Only a select few reasons, according to the organs of perception, are appropriate for the cognitive process (they are the subject of attention);
- Classification and identification. This can be accomplished by comparing the unique motives of practical information in a man's brains;
- Nominative. Most cognitive categories were modelled after other, more ambiguous categories.
Eleanor Rosh, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley who specialises in cognitive psychology, is best known for her work on categorization, particularly her prototype theory, which has had a significant impact on the field. Eleanor Rosh was formerly known as Eleanor Rosh Heider. Rosch has studied a wide range of subjects during her career, with a focus on linguistics, mental models of concepts, and semantic categorization. Her areas of interest in research are cross-cultural, Eastern, and religious psychology, as well as cognition, concepts, causation, thinking, and memory.
Eleanor Rosch was researching the focal hues' psychological effects. Her research led to the following conclusions:
Focus hues have three advantages over other colours: 1) They are more highly valued; 2) They are retained in recent memory for a longer period of time; and 3) Children can name focus colours more quickly. As a significant aspect of human existence and action, colour is a component of the world picture in each of the elements identified by Leontyev A.N. in the structure of consciousness (material part, meaning, and personal sense).
Like many other psychophysiological effects of colour, psychological systems that determine how people see colour are primarily universal to all human beings.
Contrary to what is seen on a material level, each colour has a specific significance that develops over the course of a person's life and their activities. Different colours have various connotations. Even as a young child, a child begins to enjoy colour and other features of objects and to signify them with the aid of language, integrating the ways of phenomena categorization, typical for the cultural picture of the world. This is due to the sense organs of the child.
Personal, solid systems of meaning start to develop throughout time.
As verbal-sensitive association complexes, they typically serve this purpose.
In his tests conducted in Central Asia in 1931–1922, Luria A.R., who was interested in identifying cultural distinctions in human intellectual activity, asserted that the categories and classifications of colour are influenced by culture. Luria concurred that colour perception is a universal function at the same time.
However, we should refrain from completely contrasting cultural and universal traits.
All features have colour, which is an essential element of how the world appears. It is a crucial component of the subject image content and is included in the written text. Depending on his unique connotation, every person can relate several emotions to a same colour.
Every hue has a culturally set meaning that is based on the material it is made of (for instance, the colour red makes your heart beat faster and your blood start to rush, denoting danger from an impending attack, according to M. Lusher).