Today in our globalization era, English plays indispensible and one of the vital role in the world. Meantime, in Uzbekistan, English is considered as a foreign language. It should be emphasized that it has been conducted to educational institutions which is learnt from general schools up to university level as an compulsory subject to learn. Because English serves as an international foreign language, subsequently in the world many communities in many countries use it in every speciality of human life, such as education, communication, science, economics, technology and etc. As well as, as a developing country in Uzbekistan, the English is becoming one of the necessary demands of being a good specialist in any profession. Therefore it is one of the obligatory subjects in educational system. Some measures are being conducted to foster English learning skills. As all we know there are four skills of English communicative competence and one of them is speaking. From this article you can find some ways of enhancing speaking skill.
We all know that the instructional accesses of communicative and whole language include integration of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills which always reflect natural language use. Nevertheless, opportunities and criteria for listening and speaking require to make a plan and structure, if they should support language improvement. It is easily to say that this article describes what speaking and listening include and what people should do to become good speakers and listeners in the process of expressing themselves. What is more is that it also shows an initial plan for creating an effective speaking lesson and for increasing the range of learners' speaking skills.
It must be emphasized that listening is used twice as often as speaking in the outside the classroom. Or it cannot be refuted that, in turn, listening is used twice as much as reading and writing. But inside the classroom, both speaking and listening are the most often used skills, in turn, reading and writing are much more used skills than the two. Actually, listening and speaking are recognized both by teachers and by learners as critical factors for functioning in an English language context. These two skills are also initial points of logical instruction when learners come from low language backgrounds, or when they have low literacy levels, or limited formal education. Let`s firstly answer the question that what speaking is.
The best answer which springs our mind is that speaking is an interactive process of creating meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. The form and meaning of speaking are usually dependent on the context in which it happens, involving the participants themselves, their general experiments, the purposes for speaking, and of course, the physical environment. It is often self generated, open-ended, and developing. However, oral speech is not always unpredictable. As an example we can refer that when a tradesperson asks "May I help you?" the expected sequence of expression includes a statement of need, responding to the need, offer of recognition of excellence, confession of the appreciation, and a farewell exchange. “Speaking needs that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (linguistic competence), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (sociolinguistic competence). It would certainly be a sobering thought to assert that speech has its own skills, structures, and conventions different from written language.” A good speaker renews this collection of skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act.
So the next question is about what should good speaker do.
The capacity and speech habits of speaker have a strong influence on the success of any exchange. Speakers must be able to foretaste and then produce the expected examples of explicit discourse conditions. They must also control separate elements such as rewording, reorienting, providing feedback, or turn-taking. For instance, a learner involved in the exchange with the salesperson described previously must know the usual pattern that such an interaction follows and access that knowledge as the exchange progresses. From this context, it can be easily referred that the learner must also choose the correct vocabulary to depict the item searched, reword or emphasize words to make clear the portraiture, if the clerk does not comprehend, and use suitable facial expressions to betoken satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the service. Following instructions might include other skills and knowledge:
- Good speaker should produce the sounds, rhythmic structures, stress examples, and intonations of the language;
- Should use grammar structures exactly;
- Should assess characteristics of the objective audience; it includes shared knowledge or shared opinions of relationships, status and power relations of partakers, interest levels, or differences in perspectives;
- Should choose vocabulary that is appropriate and understandable for the audience, the topic being discussed, and the situations which speech occurs in;
- Should apply strategies to improve comprehensibility, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, or checking for listener comprehension;
- Should use body language or gestures;
- And of course should pay attention to the rate of speech, and complexity of grammar structures.
There is also another person attending to improve your skills. It is a teacher. So how is the role of teacher enhancing learners` speech. Of course, in that case, teachers` role is important one. Teachers should supervise learners' speech production to determine what skills and knowledge they already have and what areas need development. Speaking lessons can include the usual examples of preparation: presentation, practice, evaluation, and extension, visual aids and etc. The teacher can use the substance step to appoint a context for the speaking task (where, when, why, and with whom it will occur) and to introduce awareness of the speaking skill to be aimed (asking to make clear, stressing key words, using short forms of words). Teachers should make a speech with their students more, they should practice in oral. During making a presentation teacher should involve each students and should check their comprehension through giving questions. At the end of the presentation teachers should sum up not only themselves, but also should make a summary with their students together. Through this way teacher can succeed to make all of their students make a speech.
Lots of learners can express the meaning well with the appropriate form, such as, in grammar, especially writing, pronunciation and vocabulary. One of the faults which some of them have in learning English is speaking ability. Their English speaking ability is still low. It would be better to indentify main problems before improving it. There are following problems which are come across by some students:
- The students are afraid of making mistakes in grammar, pronunciation, and intonation;
- The students feel shy to express their ideas in English;
- The students seem to be in doubt and nervous to speak English;
- The students are afraid to be laughed at by others and they have no courage to express their own English ability;
- The students never use English in their daily communication either inside, or, moreover, outside the class because of their limited vocabulary.
The many factors can be the causes of speaking problems which mentioned above. They may be the students, the teachers and the syllabus. The current orthodoxy on that delicate issue is that the teacher is one of the essential factors that can improve students' ability. It would certainly be a sobering thought to assert that he/she is the person who is literally responsible to instruct them through the teaching-learning process. It means that in exchanging knowledge the teacher has also play one of the main role. There is no precise evidence to refute that fact that in teaching English, the teacher has to be able to make the students take part in conversing the topics actively, so that they will be able not only to comprehend what they are learning in the class but also to utter their ideas in English verbally. The most important thing to perform in English teaching is that the teacher has to be able to use different methods and approaches.