Organizational unity of the school class, this is a quality of the team, which characterizes its ability to business integration (Association), organization and self-organization. It is expressed in the presence of active governing and self-governing bodies, the interaction and interdependence of group members, and outside it, with other groups.
Increased organizational unity cool collective is an asset class. If the asset has professional qualities, organizational skills, if the school has a learning asset, its systematic reporting and a lot of activity, independence, then we can talk about a high level of organizational unity, and, conversely, the episodic nature of classroom management makes an asset non-functional, which indicates a low level of development of the team. In this student group for the coordinated work of assets takes place as far as they understand and perceive each other.
Understanding is the knowledge of the students one of the motives, intentions, condition, the contents of the other statements. "Mutual understanding allows us to distribute the measure of participation of each person in joint activities, to effectively use the opportunities of each."
What are these common patterns of knowledge of students of each other in the classroom? First of all, the students 'knowledge of each other is based on perception — reflection and interpretation of appearance and physical data as a set of" anatomical, functional and social characteristics of a person available to specific sensory cognition." This perception of expression, ie expressive body movements, facial expressions, gestures, physiological indicators of mental state ( redness of the cheeks, etc.). This perception of question are meaningful and expressive of the parties in the communication process.
But human perception, as studies on social perception ( a field of psychological knowledge that studies people's perception and understanding of each other) have shown, is not a mirror reflection of their internal personal characteristics. "Perceiving movements, actions, actions, human activity, people penetrate into its internal psychological content, learn its beliefs, needs, interests, feelings, character, abilities." And external signs are only signals on the basis of which the image of psychology of other person is created.
It should be noted that the distorted opinion about another person, based on his external features, is explained by many reasons. The accuracy and completeness of the student's perception of each other is greatly influenced by the experience of communication. For example, students engaged in organizational activities, more sensitive and adequately perceive and evaluate the behavior of other members of the team. Affects the perception and interpretation of the current own "theory of personality" of the perceiver-his conscious or not fully conscious ideas about people "in General", about how they are kind, responsive, etc. Influenced by such worldly notions of people like: "people with big forehead — smart", "hard hair have a rebellious nature, full of people — good-natured", etc
"In everyday situations, there is no sense in deep penetration into the "psychology" of the peer .The student perceives another student as something familiar and taken for granted. The process of perception and interpretation will be curtailed. But when a peer moves away from the usual forms of his behavior, as the perceiver needs an analysis of his actions, and he goes to a generalized reflection."
When students perceive each other, they face difficulties, which are mainly due to two reasons. The external side of the student's behavior ambiguously determines its psychological content. For example, for a teenager defying a disadvantage may be the meaning of the statement in the opinion of their peers. This deliberate emphasis on any lack of behavior may be perceived by peers in the literal sense as "bad behavior". This determines their assessment, which may ultimately be distorted. This assessment affects the relationship of classmates with a teenager. Interesting in this respect are the examples given by A. A. Bodalev about the discrepancy between the real attitude of a teenager to the team and the way of his behavior. To illustrate, we present one of them.
Natasha I. is rude in communication, undisciplined, dissatisfied with many, prone to quarrels. However, with all its qualities, it turned out that it is very valued by its team, strongly attached to him and would not want to part with any of his classmates. At the same time with all polite, obedient and carefully performing all orders Alik.., classmate Natasha, the team does not value, in conversations with "outsiders" evil and unfairly criticizes almost all its members and the Internet is ready to leave at any time.
The example shows that the inaccuracy of the perception of the student by peers determines the inaccuracy of his assessment by students. The second reason is that perception is strongly influenced by the perception attitudes created by peers, adults, and teachers themselves.
In accordance with them, students evaluate each other in a certain way, while there may be a shift from the objective characteristics to the positive or negative side. So, when representing in the novice class feature remains for a long period of time, the like of which had given him a cool head. On the grounds of these attitudes are often given nicknames to newly arrived students.
Let us now consider the structure of mutual understanding between children in the return aspect.
In primary school, the main feature of mutual understanding is a significant increase in the "educational" characteristics given by students to each other as students. They are more likely to appreciate the nature and quality of the lessons each other, the actions and conduct in the normal conditions of school life. But at the same time, at the younger school age, first, "...the capacity of ideas about the different sides of the behavior of a peer is expanding due to new signs that they discover in the daily actions of classmates. This generalization of the mass of individual ideas is one of the genetic conditions of the formation of the child's concept of another person. Second, the student gradually revaluate the values of each of the parties behavior in the characterization of the identity of the peer."