Методы преподавания фразеологических единиц для обогащения словарного запаса

№94-1,

педагогические науки

В статье описывается важность преподавания фразеологических единиц для обогащения словарного запаса учащихся. Идиоматические выражения придают английскому языку особый колорит и наполняют его удивительным разнообразием, делая его ярче и живее. Вкратце, оно направлена на выявление полезных и практических решений для преподавателей, используемых при преподавании английской фразеологии.

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Our country draws a special attention to strengthening learning and teaching foreign languages of our youth targeting at forming conditions and chance for fostering international communication, widely using the advance achievements of the information sources as well as providing their integration into the world mutual society.

It should be noted that there is still few consensuses about the ways of teaching vocabulary especially teaching phraseological units for enriching the learners’ vocabulary. The study of any foreign language is impossible without referring to phraseological units, which represents one of the most difficult for leaning language levels. Therefore their study should be carried out with the help of phraseological units, the content of which is the students' performance of speech acts in terms of real communication or similar to them. One of the ways for creating а communicative situation at the lesson of English as а foreign language, successfully applied by teachers, is the use of visual aids with phraseological units, in which а number of factors stand as а complex of language, speech and social plans. The project work deals with the study of the usage of phraseological units for enriching vocabulary which presents a certain interest both for theoretical investigation and for practical language use which is defined by concrete results.

Teachers are promoted to conduct needs analysis before any further vocabulary teaching. Class activities should be created to meet the following criteria:

  1. exposures to words in significant contexts and in 4-skill (i.e., listening, speaking, reading, and writing) activities;
  2. rich and elaborative rehearsal about each word (e.g., describing word meanings, ordering words, and collocational matching games);
  3. use of various techniques (e.g., word unit analysis, mnemonic devices, semantic mapping, dictionary skills);
  4. active participation by students in the learning process.

Teacher can use communicative teaching approach with different techniques, focusing their attention on the topic. Tasks of the lesson were selected in order to attract students’ interest on the topic and motivate students to think critically towards the issue. Students work as an autonomy learner as well as cooperative learners. The researcher could represent that chosen technique could be useful for learning vocabulary through phraseological units as well as for reading, writing, listening speaking classes.

Communicative language teaching approach use as a basis of a lesson and all methods and techniques were selected according to this approach principal. Teacher can use idioms, visuals and the heading of the authentic text in order to make students predict what would be the next activity. By the help of this method, students were involved into the learning process as it was very interesting for them to share their opinions with classmates. The second main part activity, can be story telling, also functioned as a continuation of the warm up activity. So its main function was compare students’ prediction with new idioms. After that teacher gave the instruction of the next activity which calls “Pantomime”.

Actually, Pantomime as “the art of conveying ideas without words.” Pantomime is one of the most accessible forms of dramatics that can be incorporated into the classroom. It can be used at any age level and can be easily adapted to any level of difficulty to help the teacher reinforce the lesson. Pantomime can help to develop concentration, nonverbal communication and the ability to put action and thought together. One of the advantages of pantomime is that it leads the learners to increase their attention level to carefully observe the action and guess what the other student is trying to express. As the students have realized that everyone has an alternate creative energy, they will learn that this leads to different movements to pantomime their idea or message. For instance, most students are familiar with playing a video game and feeding a dog, however, the learners can each interpret the scene in a totally different way. The students will understand that they might have to focus more on a scene that cannot be easily realized due to the interpretation of that student without being disrespectful.

This task would help students to improve vocabulary in English and it will give significant effect for the learner in acquiring four skills; speaking, listening, reading, and writing. In supporting the learner to expand and enrich the vocabulary, the teacher has to use various learning strategies and aids in the classroom. Through the pantomime game, the learner may enrich and expand his/her vocabulary, and also the game is able to attract the learners’ interest since there is a competition in that game.

Interactive techniques gave students freedom expressing their ideas and opinions about the issue without asking permission to speak and raising hands. Sharing their own ideas they became tolerant to others’ ideas and listening to each other’ response they try to respect individual approach of each student. Classroom activities were very useful for passive students too, because they feel free expressing their ideas with course mates rather than with teacher. Small group works and individual works were involved to the process at the same level. Students’ answers were accepted by the teacher without any objections and teacher appreciate every response giving them opportunity to broad their ideas.

The Teachers’ role lie in providing their students with different learning strategies including vocabulary learning strategies. First, vocabulary should be taught within a context, instead of using lists of words in class. Teachers need to explain word meaning in context and teach techniques that are based on the use of the context for the presentation of new vocabulary. Then, teaching phraseological units through new technologies and games; the use of audiovisual materials and new technologies ( slides, films or songs …etc) motivate students to learn new words. For instance, to create more friendly atmosphere in the classroom in order to attract students’ participation to the lesson. Another suggestion is to make the activities more cooperative and supportive delivering reasonable feedback to the students responds. The teacher is also seen as the person in charge of selecting the appropriate vocabulary in accordance with students’ needs, interests and preferences. In addition, teaching vocabulary entails the use of a wide variety of activities and doing specific vocabulary exercises (e.g. gap filling and matching words) which are a good way of increasing students’ lexical competence and providing students with different sources of knowledge and materials to enhance their own learning process. Moreover, evaluation is an important aspect of strategy training, so learners should be oriented about how to assess their own learning progress and the teacher needs to periodically revise the materials employed to ensure that they are still suitable for the learning progress.

To sum up, phraseological units is a key factor in improving learners’ speaking, writing, reading and listening comprehension, alongside fluency and accuracy in production.

Список литературы

  1. McCarthy, M. and O’Dell, F. English Phrasal Verbs in Use. Upper-intermediate and advanced// Cambridge: CUP. 2004.
  2. Ronald, E.F. Practice with Idioms // Oxford: OUP. 1980.
  3. Wright, J. Idioms Organizer // Language Teaching Publications, Hove. 1999.
  4. www.englishclub.com