Эффективное обучение языку на уроках английского языка как иностранного

№97-1,

педагогические науки

Настоящая статья посвящена эффективному обучению языкам на уроках английского языка как иностранного. Сегодня специалисты с высоким уровнем теоретической подготовки и практическими навыками пользуются большим спросом. Эти навыки должны быть достаточными для профессиональной работы в своей области. Современное образование ориентировано на развитие познавательных способностей личности, их способности учиться и овладевать системой знаний, творчеством личности.

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At present, the international relation of Uzbekistan with foreign countries are widening and growing. The English language has become the main means of communication among different levels of international relations of Uzbekistan with other countries. And this is the reason for ever-growing interest for learning foreign languages, especially, the English language. Organizing teaching English at the non-philological faculties should answer the requirements of the document of CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference) for languages: learning, teaching, assessment which was worked out by the council of Europe and recommended to be used in the education system of European countries. Teaching English at the non-philological faculties is aimed to teach English for specific purposes, i.e. to develop the students` language competency and written speech competency which will help them in their future activity. At the non-philological faculties we train qualified specialists who should answer the demands of international standards. In other words the students of non-philological faculties should be trained according to the demands of bachelor degree (B2). The new concept in teaching foreign language means systematic approach in understanding the process of teaching. Only the systematic description can give us the real image of a substance or an action. The teaching of foreign languages has an important international value. The wide spread need for English at the same time brought some problems concerning to teaching it as a foreign language such as organizing teaching in multilingual auditoriums, working out curriculum, methodology which takes into consideration the result of language contacts i.e. the influence of language structures, skills and habits on one another in the process of teaching and also communication. In the process of forming communicative written speech skills and sub skills we should focus our attention on the three main points:

  • Acquiring knowledge on grammar skills;
  • Improving vocabulary skills and sub skills.
  • Teaching English with effective reading and speaking skills.

In teaching English languages mainly two approaches are differentiated: conscious and intuitive. Most teachers state the productivity, effectiveness and economy of the conscious approach. In the Intuitive approach getting knowledge and improving speech skills can be reached by repeating the language structures and words many times. It is not effective in teaching English as a second language in national groups, because it needs much time and energy and besides this teaching a foreign language in national groups lacks real speech atmosphere which is very important in intuitive approach. If we look back to the history of a foreign language teaching we can see different view points on this problem. In his time a well known scientist-linguist V.Humboldt stated the importance of giving much information on the language structures in teaching to it. And this view dominated in language teaching till the end of the XIV th century. Then there appeared new view points in foreign language teaching which influenced on the aims of teaching and they brought some corrections into it, and much attention began to be given to practical use of the language. Foreign language teachers focused their attention on using speech patterns. And this stipulated the formation speech habits and skills speaking, listening, reading and writing.

As noted earlier, the research design was modified to include an overview of principles for effective language teaching drawn from more descriptive (qualitative) data than from the quasi-experimental (quantitative data) in the original synthesis. The inclusion of this process-type research helps to provide a more complete picture of effective practice in language teaching. The main themes identified in this chapter are:

  • early language learning
  • task-based interaction
  • balancing form-focused and meaning activities
  • listening comprehension and story-telling activities
  • target language use
  • the European Language Portfolio (ELP)
  • language learning strategies

Researchers Barnes and Lock said that: attributes which allay levels of anxiety and build student confidence are particularly important to language students. These attributes — including friendliness, good relationships, care, patience, Teacher understanding of two context specific factors — students’ educational history and level — were considered very important by respondents. They suggest that teachers need to recognize that students had not received much instruction in the areas of writing and speaking. The other context-specific factor accorded a high level of importance was teacher understanding of different levels. The qualitative data from Barnes and Lock explain that this seems particularly relevant in this university context, where the classes are multi-level, and where some teachers may tend to favor the more advanced students. Teachers need to create activities or tasks that extend beyond language drills, where pupils communicate ideas and feelings to one another about topics of interest to them. Through these activities, pupils need to make their utterances comprehensible and receive feedback as to whether they have been understood. This helps learners to develop their production and comprehension skills. Tasks can also motivate learners to use the target language by providing them with a reason to communicate. Task-based interactions are seen to be facilitative of second language learning. The role of the teacher during these activities is to monitor the language of the pupils and any intervention needs to be carefully measured. Pupils need opportunities to listen to and comprehend natural spoken language. Similar to reading, learners can be helped to develop strategies for deriving meaning from a listening text. Ideally pupils should use an interaction strategy which combines both ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ processing. In ‘bottom-up’ processing pupils piece together the sounds that they have heard to form words, phrases and sentences that they recognize. They combine this with a ‘top-down’ approach where they use their prior knowledge of the topic or situation to predict or guess what they have heard. One strategy is said to compensate for gaps in the other so that the oral text can be comprehended. In order to activate their prior knowledge teachers should ask pupils what they know about the topic to which they are to listen.

  • Prepare difficult vocabulary.
  • Pose pre-listening or focusing questions.
  • Ask pupils to recall general points after listening.
  • Use listening texts with natural language where possible rather
  • Than artificial teacher-made language.

An early start to language learning can be beneficial for learners as it activates natural language acquisition mechanisms and ultimately provides more time to acquire the L2. Staring early does not however guarantee success. At the minimum it must be accompanied by effective teaching. Two learning characteristics that appear to be important are motivation and aptitude. The research suggests that aptitude can be developed and is not something that is fixed. The implication of this in the classroom is that it is not enough to concentrate exclusively on ‘fun’ activities based on language use but that teachers need to develop pupils’ meta-language. This requires a balance between activities to promote fluency and confidence on the one hand with activities to focus on accuracy or form on the other. Some activities that a teacher will plan will require spontaneous communication and others where pupils have time to plan and prepare what they will say or write such as in class presentations or writing workshops.

Список литературы

  1. Auerbach, 1993. Krashen 1982 “Teaching Foreign Language”
  2. Barnes and Lock.(2010) ’’Teaching English Student Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teachers’’ Australian Journal of Teacher Education
  3. Effective language teaching in EFL classroom Oliver, Philp & Mackey, 2008
  4. Effective Ways of teaching English. Andijan State University (2014)