In the methodology of teaching modern English, the concepts of “written speech”, “writing” differ. As we know, communication consists of spoken and written language. In oral speech, communication is carried out through components such as understanding after listening, speaking. Through written speech, through components such as reading and writing.
Moreover, writing is an inseparable component of writing. Through writing, as a component of speech activity, information is exchanged. When learning English, writing occupies an important place. Using a letter, information, information is transmitted to another person or other people. Through writing, we can save information for a long time, even over the centuries, pass it on to the future generation. Without writing, we would not be able to preserve the scientific and historical heritage, could not learn about the achievements of past centuries, the history of the peoples of the world, etc.
As you can see, writing is a speech activity and should be studied. Speaking in a scientific language, writing is a productive speech activity consisting of the codification of information and information through writing. In addition, writing is the goal and means of education and training. Previously, in almost all foreign language curricula for educational institutions of various types, writing was not defined as a goal, but as a means of education. Only in the 60s of the twentieth century, a modest requirement was included in foreign language programs, in which writing was defined as the goal of education, and the task was to develop the ability to write letters to foreign friends.
In the new curriculum, from the end of the 20th century, writing is defined both as a goal and as a means of teaching a foreign language. Writing at all stages of training had an auxiliary meaning and performed the task of a learning tool for the development and improvement of speaking and comprehension skills, understanding through listening and reading. In V — IX grades of a secondary school, writing is considered the goal of education.
Writing is used as a means of learning and plays a different role at different stages of secondary school education. For example, the main task of the first stage of education consists of teaching writing, since during this period the skills of calligraphy and the skills of sound consistency — letters, are formed. These skills are a prerequisite for building reading and writing skills. At the second stage of training, work on writing is transferred to work on spelling related to the accumulation of language material. At the same time, written speech is developing as a means of enabling the formation of oral speech skills.
At this stage of education, writing and speaking skills are improved. Spelling is ongoing, and writing skills are being developed. Based on the technique of writing, writing out thoughts, there are difficulties in learning to write, which are divided into extra-linguistic and linguistic difficulties.
Extra-linguistic difficulties include:
- preparing the student, student in a letter;
- the preparedness of the situation to perform actions on the letter;
- the availability of funds for writing (notebook, pen, book);
- the willingness of the teacher, teacher to learn writing;
- knowledge by the teacher, teacher of teaching methods of writing, methods of writing;
- construction of exercises, written works in accordance with the knowledge of students, students.
Linguistic difficulties include:
- the ability to correctly write block letters in capital letters;
- the ability to correctly write letter combinations;
- the ability to write words without errors, knowledge of their meaning and meaning;
- the ability to make grammatically correct sentences from words.
It should be said that the content of teaching writing means what you need to learn by writing and what to do with them. When learning to write, students learn to make words from letters and combinations of letters, sentences from words, to express their thoughts in writing.
Linguists call the writing of letters and combinations of letters graphics, the correct spelling of words — spelling, the correct placement of punctuation — punctuation, calligraphy — calligraphy. All this, together with a written statement of thought through them, is included in the content. Having simplified them, it can be divided into two types: 1) training in graphics, spelling and punctuation can be included in the writing technique; 2) a written statement of thought.
Teaching pupils and students the ability to correctly express their thoughts in English is the main goal of teaching writing and is carried out in 4 stages: 1-stage: oral development in the classroom (audience) of words and models on the chosen topic. Stage 2: the study of the spelling of words and models studied orally, the execution of written assignments given at home. Stage 3: performing oral speech exercises on a selected topic. Stage 4: Writing a thought on a chosen topic The exercises used to teach writing are of two types: for learning the writing technique and for writing a thought.
In addition, exercises are divided into 2 types: language or preparatory and speech exercises. With the correct spelling of letters, phrases, words and phrases, training exercises are used to compose sentences from words, while working on text, exercises are used to reduce the text, draw up a plan for writing the statement. The exercises that teach the presentation of thoughts are speech.
These include writing, writing, writing to foreign friends, writing annotations, writing out a topic. Preparatory exercises, first of all, include rewriting exercises based on samples to expand or simplify sentences.
Another type of preparatory exercise is aimed at developing the ability to express information in your own words. Speech exercises aimed at developing writing begin with written exercises. When forming a letter, exercises, writing, dictations, expositions, images, a story, an essay, writing a letter and others are used.
Currently, the attitude towards writing and teaching students the ability to express their thoughts in writing has changed drastically. Writing as a goal of instruction is present in programs for all types of educational institutions, at all stages of teaching a foreign language. The increasing role of writing in the educational process in a foreign language is also associated with the use of currently creative, interactive forms of working with the language. The formation and improvement of communication skills in writing at a high level of complexity is one of the most important requirements in modern teaching a foreign language.