Некоторые особенности идиом в узбекском языке и их роль в переводе

№122-1,

филологические науки

Статья посвящена основам и тенденциям развития узбекской лексики и фразеологии.

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In the Uzbek language the notion of idiom is understood as the notion of phraseology. But the most sensitive issue in the study of idioms is considered the translation of their semantic meaning into another language. Because saving the lexical, semantic, and linguistic peculiarities of idioms in translation is one of the most difficult tasks. The translation of idioms is considered very complicated, time-consuming process.

There are researches aimed at exploring phraseologisms of the Uzbek language, determination of their place and importance in the lexical stratum of the Uzbek language. In particular, there created a series of studies, which are the main sources of scientific phraseology of Uzbek and dealt with such subjects as “Introduction to Linguistics” by A. Abduazizova (2010), “Lexical layers of modern Uzbek language” by E. Begmatova (1985), “Lexical peculiarities of Uzbek prose” by B. Umurkulov, “The issues of Systemic linguistics” (2007), “The Turkic layer of the vocabulary of the Uzbek language” (2001), Explanatory phraseological dictionary of Uzbek (1978) and explanatory dictionary (1995) by Sh. Rahmatullaev, “Fundamentals of system lexicology of the Uzbek language” by Kh. Negmatov, R. Rasulov (1995), “The History of Uzbek linguistics” by A. Nurmonov (2002), “The Problems of lexical and phraseological norms in modern Uzbek language” (1991), “Theoretical bases of formation of phraseological units” (1997) and “Phraseological formation in the Uzbek language” (1999), “Functional methodological features of phraseological units in modern Uzbek language” (1993) by A. E. Mamatov.

These studies are devoted to the basics and trends in the development of the Uzbek vocabulary and phraseology, and are of great practical importance when the Uzbek equivalent of English phraseologisms, especially idioms, either by replacing English idioms with relevant Uzbek phraseology, aphorisms, proverbs or sayings.

Among the works on the translation problems of idioms from Uzbek into English up today there aren’t any studies devoted to a comparative analysis of English idioms with the richness of the Uzbek language, learning Uzbek idioms on the basis of direct literary translations into English.

The questions of direct translation from one language to another, in our case from Uzbek into English, particularly literary works, put before the translators and linguists translation of lexical features one Uzbek into English. Sometimes the issue is a kind that requires the interpreter thorough knowledge of the principles of both languages, and language sense, when it becomes possible not only meaningful, but also stylistic, linguistic and lexical equality of ST and TT. In this regard, we can say that such difficult and new tasks, which are new for Uzbek translation schools, met by the translators from Uzbek into English.

One of the difficult issues is the question of translation is the translation of Uzbek phraseologisms. As is known, the vocabulary of Uzbek has its own peculiarities. Its structure and lexical structure is very rich, unique, and diverse. A unique feature of the Uzbek language is considered phraseology (idioms). Many idioms of the Uzbek language are frequently used in daily speech of people. They continue to occur today, as in speech, and in the literary language. New idioms introduced into wide appeal today.

Since independence, the art of direct translation from Uzbek into English newly revived. Today direct translation from the Uzbek language, in terms of maintaining originality and adequate translation of content is valued above translation through other languages, in particular, by the help of the Russian language.

Hence, in the current period of growth and development of dialogue between peoples and cultures, cultural exchange is necessary to pay special attention to the Uzbek school of translation tasks assigned to it and send it at solving problems that confronts its present and our future. From this point of view it becomes important the scientific study of Uzbek-English idioms and creation as a result of the Uzbek-English and English-Uzbek dictionaries of idioms (phraseology).

Words combined into a single linguistic structure in comprising idioms, they lose their original semantic meaning, therefore, comprised into idioms, they begin to take on a new meaning and content. But this is not a new content, which is not associated with the combined value of the meanings of individual words. But unusual they have nothing to do with the primary meanings of words creating an idiom. Words, becoming the part of a new idiom, get a single meaning. This peculiarity of them in many cases is based on the change in the semantics of the word or getting a new meaning in the new phrases, producing an idiom.

When translating idioms common sense can be explained only on the basis of the translation of their whole meaning arising on the basis of their structural unity, far from the meaning of individual words.

The semantics of idioms is not the simple sum of its constituent words, as the idiom is not a member of linguistically united “free” and “independent” words, but the combinations of words “sacrificed for the sake of “freedom” and creation of meaning and wholeness of idioms”.

Список литературы

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