Phraseology is the most vibrant, colorful, and unique aspect of any language's lexicon. In communication, phraseological units can be quite useful. When communicating with others, people utilize words, phrases, and phraseological units to express their thoughts. They have a strong expressive effect because they have an impact on the reader's mood, aesthetic perception, and literary and cultural associations. Phraseological units have been classified semantically, stylistically, and structurally. In the semantic field, they can denote general characteristics, spiritual characteristics, and the physical state of a human being. We have emphasized phraseological units representing human intellectual abilities in English and Uzbek.
In this work method of comparative typological analysis is used.
Throughout history, there were so many arguments about how to distinguish phraseological units by their semantics. Also, the classification of scholars was different and sometimes become the foundation of knowledge to find the new ones. In the 1960s many scholars studied the theoretical and practical elements of phraseology. Somehow their classifications were based on each other. You are witnessed in Table1.
Phraseme (set phrase)
Pragmatic phraseme (pragmateme)
Idiom or idiomatic expressions
Many linguists of the 21st century realized that the main contribution to the emergency of phraseology as a separate branch of linguistics, along with the initial scientific research of Russian linguists, was made by scholar V.V Vinogradov. It is no coincidence that he is recognized as the father of Russian linguistic phraseology, as he explained the object and structure of this field. The term «phraseological units» was chosen by Vinogradov and demonstrated it as the core of this field. According to Vinogradov’s classification, all phraseological units are divided into phraseological fusions, phraseological unities, and phraseological combinations.
Phraseological fusionis a semantically indivisible phraseological unit whose meaning is never influenced by the meanings of its components.
Once in a blue moon — very seldom;
To cry for the moon — to demand unreal;
Under the rose — quietly. [2; 244].
Phraseological unityis a semantically indivisible phraseological unit the whole meaning of which is motivated by the meanings of its components.
To come to one’s sense –to change one’s mind;
To come home — to hit the mark;
To fall into a rage — to get angry. [2; 245].
Phraseological combination (collocation)is a construction or an expression in which every word has an absolutely clear independent meaning while one of the components has a bound meaning.
To make attempt — to try;
To make haste — to hurry;
To offer an apology — to beg pardon. [2; 246].
However, Uzbek linguist, A Mamatov in his research has investigated the opinion of V.V Vinogradov, he has pointed out that phraseological units are broad terms that include technical and scientific terms, phrases, proverbs, sayings. As a result, the meaning of them are expanded, their inner meaning is unformed and most of them are not connoted as well. For this reason, he considered that take into account their wide range and need to classify them again.
Using the scholars’ points we gather total 43 phraseological units of English and 35 phraseological units of Uzbek language. We have classified the phraseological units which represent human intellectual abilities by means of their meanings. ‘Cleverness’, ‘Crazyness’, ‘Thinking’, ‘Recognizing/ ‘Hesitating’, ‘Remembering’ have been found the main components of human intellect. In tables 2 and 3 you are allowed to see semantic distinctions of phraseological units which representing human intellectual abilities in English and Uzbek languages.
While investigating we have found them in English language «cleverness» of a human being is described with the following phraseological units which are the same meaning in Uzbek language: ‘with one’s head screwed on (right, the right way, straight, properly)-‘aqli joyida, aqli yetadi, fahmi yetadi, aqli raso, zehni baland’. In English and Uzbek languages ‘head’ («bosh»,»kalla») is playing an integral role in representing the presence of intellect. Besides, in Uzbek, it is expressed with ‘mind’ (‘aql’, ‘fahm’ and ‘zehn’). One obtains data, and knowledge, in his or her mind and evaluates things by leaning on this knowledge. In both languages phraseology «head» is the main tool for cleverness. In Uzbek culture, human intellect is measured by the degree or enoughness of ‘mind’ (‘aql’, ‘fahm’ and ‘zehn’). The absence of intelligence of person is considered silly, craziness and stupidness. The lack of intelligence is compared some animals, or their organs such as ‘brain’ in Englishand «miya» in Uzbek. As examples: ‘birdbrain’and ‘tovuqmiya’. It is undoubted that bird and hen’s brains are located in their head and their heads are small and then their brains are even smaller rather than head. In two languages absence of cleverness in other words craziness is evaluated with size of brain. Also, in English ‘stupid as sheep’, ‘silly as a goose’ and are used to describe the concept of foolish of human being. There are several sources that show the reason of the concept of foolish compared to ‘goose’. One of the reason is that goose is often portrayed as being the unwise or gullible one in fairy tales and fables such as ‘The fox and Goose». Another source comes from the fact male geese often overact to perceived competition from other males. If their mates come closer to another male goose, the angry will stand in between them waggling wings and make angry noise.  This goes to show that negative behavior of goose to transferred to human’s personality. In English «have mixed feelings» and in Uzbek «boshi shishdi», «miyasi govlab ketdi», «miyasi aynidi», «boshi qotdi» are connected with feeling uncertain or hesitating about things. The deficiency of mental ability, slow speed brain capacity, total absence of brainpower of person often associates with health issues or illness (temporary, permanent): English «be out of one’s senses», «go bananas», in Uzbek ‘aqldan ozmoq’, ‘esi og’moq’, ‘aqlini yo’qotmoq’, ‘miyasini yemoq’, ‘aqlini yemoq’, ‘esini yemoq’, ‘aqldan ozmoq’, ‘esi og’moq’, ‘esi o’g’ib ketdi’. Description of anger is characterized by losing ‘sense’ in English, however, in Uzbek ‘mind’(‘aql’,’es’) is connoted with verb ‘eat’, ‘lose’ which express the feeling of anger. The origin of ‘go banana’ is based on ‘going ape’, given the legendary enthusiasm of monkey for bananas.
To sum up, the main reason for difference to describe human intellectual abilities with phraseological units is culture. They have same meaning but their components are not identical into two languages. However, sometimes it has common features for both like ‘with one’s head screwed on’ (right, the right way, straight, properly)- kallasi ishlaydigan, kallali, aqli joyida, aqli yetadi, fahmi yetadi, aqli raso, zehni baland. ‘Head’ is common both two languages to display human intelligence. Another distinguishing feature in their components is the etymology of phraseological units which makes little correspondence between them such as ‘go bananas’. Also image bearing of animals in peoples’ mind differs such ‘stupid as sheep’ or ‘silly as a goose’ in English thus it leads them to describe in several ways.