Стили и стратегии обучения в современной системе образования

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Аннотация

В этой статье обсуждается общая информация о стилях и стратегиях обучения, а также их значение для современной системы образования. Основываясь на различных ресурсах и исследованиях, в статье также выделяются типы стилей обучения.

Ключевые слова

КИНЕСТЕТИЧЕСКИЕ УЧАЩИЕСЯ, СТРАТЕГИИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ, СТИЛИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ, МЕТОДЫ ОБУЧЕНИЯ, ЗРИТЕЛЬНО-АУРАЛЬНЫЕ, МОДЕЛЬ ВАРК, ПИШУЩИЕ УЧАЩИЕСЯ, ЧИТАЮЩИЕ УЧАЩИЕСЯ

Текст научной работы

Introduction

Learning style allude to unique ways a person processes and preserves new information or skills. Learning can be characterized as lasting changes in behavior actuated by life. Concurring to experiential learning hypothesis, learning is «the handle whereby information is made through the change of experience».

Encouraging the learning prepare is the essential point of educating. Understanding the learning behavior of understudies is considered as a portion of this handle. Subsequently, the concept of learning styles has gotten to be a well-known theme in later writing; with numerous hypotheses, almost learning styles put forward to superior get it the energetic prepare of learning. Learning fashion alludes to an individual’s favored way of handling unused data for effective learning. Rita Dunn depicted the concept of learning fashion as «an interesting way created by understudies when he/she was learning unused and troublesome knowledge». The learning handle is distinctive for each person; indeed, within the same instructive environment, learning does not happen in all understudies at the same level and quality.

Research has appeared that people display distinctive approaches within the learning prepare and a single methodology or approach was incapable to supply ideal learning conditions for all people. This may be related to students’ distinctive foundations, qualities, shortcomings, interface, desire, levels of inspiration, and approaches to examining. To make strides undergrad instruction, teachers ought to end up more mindful of these diverse approaches. Learning styles may be valuable to assist understudies and teachers get it how to move forward the way they learn and instruct, individually.

Determining students’ learning styles gives data around their particular inclinations. Understanding learning styles can make it simpler to make, adjust, and create more productive educational programs and various instructive programs. It can moreover energize students’ interest in these programs and spur them to pick up proficient information. Subsequently, deciding learning fashion is quite profitable in arrange to realize more viable learning. Investigating learning styles gives information on how understudies learn and discover answers to questions. Learning styles have been distinguished as indicators of scholastic execution and guides for educational programs plan.

Research methodology

Broadly talking, learning styles can be characterized as common approaches to dialect learning, whereas learning techniques are particular ways learners select to manage with dialect assignments in specific contexts. Learning techniques are the ways in which understudies learn, keep in mind data, and think about for tests. They allude to the activities and that depend incredibly on their claim learning styles.

The thought of individualized learning styles got to be well known in the 1970s and has incredibly affected instruction in spite of the feedback that the thought has gotten from a few researchers. On the other hand, learning styles allude to the common approaches that understudies utilize in procuring a modern dialect or in learning any other subject.

Students learn and process information in numerous distinctive ways. Learning styles are valuable as they permit teaches to memorize more approximately understudies, as well as help within the advancement and application of valuable teaching approaches and methods. At the undergrad level there's a recognizable need of inquire about on learning fashion inclinations of understudies enlisted in net life structures courses.

Learning styles. Learning styles are periodic designs of seeing, handling, or responding to information.

Learning strategies. Learning methodologies are the particular activities one takes or procedures one employments in arrange to memorize.

The VARK model of learning styles suggests that there are four main types of learners:

  1. Visual;
  2. Auditory;
  3. Reading/writing;
  4. Kinesthetic.

The idea that students learn best when teaching methods and school activities match their learning styles, strengths, and preferences grew in popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. However, most evidence suggests that personal learning preferences have little to no actual influence on learning outcomes. While the existing research has found that matching teaching methods to learning styles has no influence on educational outcomes, the concept of learning styles remains extremely popular.

There are numerous distinctive ways of categorizing learning styles, but Neil Fleming's VARK show is one of the foremost well known. Fleming presented a stock in 1987 that was outlined to assist understudies and others learn more around their person learning preferences. According to the VARK show, learners are recognized by whether they have an inclination for:

  • Visual learning (pictures, motion pictures, diagrams);
  • Auditory learning (music, dialog, lectures);
  • Reading and composing learning (making records, perusing course readings, taking notes);
  • Kinesthetic learning (development, tests, hands-on activities).
Four types of learning styles.
Рисунок 1. Four types of learning style

Visual learners

Leaners who best internalize and synthesize data when it is displayed to them in a realistic delineation of important images are depicted as visual learners. They may react to bolts, charts, graphs and other visualizations of data progression, but not essentially to photos or videos.

Because visual learners tend to be all encompassing learners who handle data best when it is displayed to them as a vigorous entire instead of piecemeal, they tend to see positive instructive results when they are displayed with summarizing charts and charts instead of consecutive slides of information.

Auditory learners

Aural learners are most fruitful when they are given the opportunity to listen data displayed to them vocally. Since understudies with this learning fashion may some of the time select not to require notes during class in arrange to preserve their unbroken sound-related consideration, teachers can wrongly conclude that they are less locked in than their classmates are. In any case, these students may have decided that note taking may be a diversion, which their unbroken consideration could be a more important way for them to learn.

Auditory learning could be a two-way road: Understudies who drop into this methodology regularly discover victory in gather exercises where they are inquired to talk about course materials vocally with their classmates, and they may advantage from reading their composed work aloud to themselves to assist them think it through.

Reading and Writing learners

Students who work best within the reading/writing methodology illustrate a solid learning inclination for the composed word. This incorporates both composed information presented in course within the frame of presents and PowerPoint slide introductions as well as the opportunity to synthesize course substance within the completion of composed assignments. This methodology moreover loans itself to conducting investigate online, as numerous information-rich sources on the web are generally text-heavy.

Reading/writing-oriented students ought to be energized to require overflowing notes during classroom addresses to assist them both handle data and have a simpler time reviewing it afterward.

Kinesthetic learners

Kinesthetic learners are hands-on, participatory learners who got to take a physically active part within the learning prepare in arrange to attain their best instructive outcomes. They are in some cases alluded to as «tactile learners,» but this will be a bit of a misnomer; instead of utilizing touch, kinesthetic learners tend to lock in all of their faculties similarly within the handle of learning.

Since of their dynamic nature, kinesthetic learners frequently have the foremost troublesome time succeeding in customary classroom settings. A few teachers have found victory empowering kinesthetic learners to utilize flashcards for subjects like math and English to form repetition memorization into an intelligently involvement. These understudies too regularly flourish in logical subjects with lab components, as the skills-based, guidelines preparing that happens in these settings locks in them in profitable ways.

Learning Styles Tips and Strategies

Visual
  • Doodle charts of your composed data within the margins;
  • Make a flowchart for the movement of your notes and ideas;
  • Make flashcards that incorporate pictures or graphs as visual clues;
  • Highlight key data in your writings or notes;
  • Make a chart or an arrangement of boxes to remind you how to total math equations;
  • Utilize a computer to change over information and notes into charts, tables, design, pictures, etc;
  • Lexicon mnemonics;
  • Executioner game;
  • Timelines.
Aural/auditory
  • Use a computer to record your notes perused aloud. Change over this data to download for iPod utilizing iTunes;
  • Studied your notes aloud when considering (intellect your surroundings!);
  • Work with a normal ponder accomplice to survey out loud;
  • Work in a gather where you will be able talk about the information;
  • Tape addresses. On the off chance that accessible, set the counter to zero when it starts and note the number at difficult times amid address. Survey these recorded times afterward for additional review;
  • When learning unused fabric, particularly conditions, conversation your way through the material;
  • Singing/ making a song;
  • Utilize of metaphors/similes to compare and keep in mind (as long as they are voiced);
  • Use Web assets like YouTube.com;
  • Mental aide gadgets.
Reading/writing
  • Re-write your notes after class;
  • Utilize colored pens and highlighters to center in on key ideas;
  • Compose notes to yourself within the margins;
  • Print out your notes for afterward review;
  • Post note cards/post in obvious places (when doing dishes, on the foot of the remote, etc.);
  • Compose out key concepts and ideas;
  • Vocab mnemonics;
  • Organize your notes/key concepts into a PowerPoint slideshow;
  • Compare your notes with somebody else’s;
  • Monotonous writing;
  • Executioner game.
Kinesthetic
  • Sort your notes after lesson — Make a YouTube video as a bunch to think about afterward individually;
  • Type in your notes onto flashcards — Scrabble — Make posters Audit flashcards whereas strolling, at exercise center, etc;
  • Dog-ear pages within the reading where you will be able discover basic information;
  • Walk back and forward, move in a few way, when examining notes;
  • As much as conceivable, make models for the data at hand Use the web to inquire about your subject material;
  • When conceivable, visit locations for your fabric (library, gallery, authentic locales, etc.);
  • To memorize a grouping or condition, utilize one note card for each step;
  • Highlight fabric when reviewing/studying;
  • Utilize a dry-erase or chalk board to think about or review Connect physical developments with ideas/terms.

There are three types of learning strategies as follows:

  1. Metacognitive Methodologies — Arranging for learning, observing one`s possess comprehension and generation, and assessing how well one has accomplished a learning objective;
  2. Cognitive Methodologies — People learn to control the fabric rationally (as in making pictures or explaining) or physically (as in gathering things ought to be learned or taking notes);
  3. The cognitive component incorporates a set of information vital for the execution of the moment stage of perusing action, on which the understudy chooses reserves, builds a program of work with the content. Information ought to be caught on as "all-encompassing and systematized set of logical concepts around the laws of nature, society, and considering gathered by mankind within the preparation of transformative mechanical movement, demonstrated by hone, pointed at assist cognition, and alter of the objective world";
  4. Social/Affective Methodologies — either connection with another person in arrange to help.

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Список литературы

  1. Hunt DE. Learning style and student needs: An introduction to conceptual level. Students' learning styles: diagnosing and prescribing programs. Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals; 1979. p. 27–38.
  2. Dunn RS, Dunn KJ. Teaching secondary students through their individual learning styles: practical approaches for grades 7–12. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 1993.
  3. Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; David G. (July 2015). "The scientific status of learning styles theories". Teaching of Psychology.
  4. R.M. Felder and L.K. Silverman, “Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education”, spring 1998.
  5. Cuevas, J. (2015). Is learning styles-based instruction effective? A comprehensive analysis of recent research on learning styles. Theory & Research in Education.
  6. Реймбаева, Н.М. Автономия учащегося в изучении языка / Н.М. Реймбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 131. — С. 111-113. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19074 (дата обращения: 09.05.2022).

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Реймбаева, Н.М. Стили и стратегии обучения в современной системе образования / Н.М. Реймбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19167 (дата обращения: 23.05.2022).

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