Системный характер словообразовательных единиц в языке

NovaInfo 134, с.70-71, скачать PDF
Раздел: Филологические науки
Язык: Английский
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В статье раскрывается тот факт, что словообразовательные единицы языка носят системный характер. С этой точки зрения показано, что производные слова в описательном словообразовании следует изучать в комплексе, как единицы определенной системы, с учетом связей и отношений, существующих между ними.

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The word as the basic unit of the language is characterized by a complex unity of content form, external, material expression and internal content and other meanings. Therefore, with the assistance of investigating the formal, material structure of derived words, concentrating on studying their semantic structure arises. In other words, descriptive word formation consists of the study of derivative vocabulary not only in terms of expression, but also in terms of content. The word-formation units of the language are of a systemic nature. From this point of view, it demonstrates that derivative words in descriptive word-formation should be studied in a complex, as units of a certain system, taking into account the connections and relationships existing between them. The main task of historical word formation is the explore of the procedures of creating new words on the basis of vocabulary units existing in the language, word formation as a historical process, changes, development of units, rules, patterns of formation of new words in the language, as well as those used in this derivational means.

Some scholars in linguistics there is no generally accepted solution to the question of the place of word formation among other branches of the science of language. Many scholars agree with the opinion of word formation is related to grammar. At the same time, some of them include word-formation while others consider it as a special branch of grammar along with morphology and syntax. Some scholars are prone to ascribe word formation to lexicology, while paying attention to its close connection with grammar, primarily with morphology. In modern linguistics, the third point of view, according to which word formation is considered as an independent section of the science of language, along with such sections as phonetics, lexicology, morphology, syntax, has become most widespread point of view. Separation of word formation into a special, independent section of the science of language is based on the recognition that there is a corresponding area of linguistic structure, a special word-formation level of the language, which stands out among other language levels due to the presence of special, specific word-formation units in the language. Such specific word — building units not related to other fields of linguistic structure are, in particular, word — building models and types. Word formation has its own special tasks that are closely related to the nature of the object being studied, resolved exclusively in this section of the science of language. Studied in the word-formation section, rules and processes have a number of specific features that distinguish them from both lexical and grammatical aisles. Despite essential, fundamental differences of word — formation of other sections of linguistic science, when singling out word — formation as an independent section of linguistics, it is necessary to emphasize its connections with sections of morphology and lexicology. The presence of these connections is largely due to the fact that the sections of morphology, lexicology of word formation deal with the study of the word, which, according to the definition of Grice P, «is, firstly, a set of word forms that are identical in lexical meaning (morphological paradigm) secondly, the totality of different meanings (lexical paradigm); thirdly, an organized sequence of morphemes of different quality (the morphological structure of the word)». The connection of word formation with morphology is most precisely manifested in the fact that in word formation, as well as in morphology, words are studied taking into account their constituent units of a lower level, called morphemes. Both of these sections deal with the study of morphemes. It is true to say that the composition of morphemes studied in word formation and in morphology is different: word formation deals with the study of word-forming morphemes, while morphology deals with the study of grammatical morphemes. However, word-forming and grammatical morphemes are similar in many ways. Many word-forming morphemes are close to grammatical ones in terms of regularity. So, some diminutive suffixes of nouns can be attached to the stems of most specific nouns of a certain grammatical gender. The most regular word-forming morphemes are close to grammatical morphemes in their semantics, in terms of the degree of abstractness of their meanings. The derived words formed with their help are to some extent connected with the abstraction characteristic of the grammatical structure of the language. Word — forming suffixes are characterized by a high degree of abstraction, the broad and generalization of meanings of which brings them closer to inflections. In view of the regularity of use and the abstractness of meanings, many morphemes of the modern language occupy, as it is an intermediate position between word-formation and grammatical means of the language. The connection of word formation with lexicology is manifested primarily in the fact that word formation deals with the study of one of the main ways of replenishing the vocabulary.

If we divide the word into pieces, it consists of morphemes. Generally, the history of the term, morpheme, it is linked with the Ancient Greek language. It means that morpheme is coined by Greeks for the first time. Linguists use the term conveying the smallest speech unit. Morpheme are depicted as the smallest meaningful language unit. Moreover, morpheme has connected with word formation. However, such units may not independent all the time. Smallest meaningful units are described as a constituent components of phrases. Morphemes are parts of the word so that they are ascribed as a significant in language. In language system there are three main units:

  1. Phoneme;
  2. Morpheme;
  3. Word.

The languages in the world follow its own specific styles as well as rules of word forming procedure, but also borrowing, construction of phrases also demonstrates opportunities for increasing the numbers of vocabulary of the language system.

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Список литературы

  1. Okazaki, Naoki and Sophia, "Building an Abbreviation Dictionary Using a Term Acronym Recognition Approach" — Tokio, 2012
  2. Plag, Ingo, "Word-Formation in English" — Cambridge University Press — New York, 2003.
  3. Lakoff G, Mark J, "Metaphors we live by" — University of Chicago Press — Chicago, 1980


Базарбаева, А.М. Системный характер словообразовательных единиц в языке / А.М. Базарбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 134. — С. 70-71. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19430 (дата обращения: 04.02.2023).