Телескопия слов

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В статье показано, что телескопирование рассматривается как самостоятельный продуктивный способ формирования нового словарного запаса.

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Telescoping and telescopic formations have been studied by many linguists. The first attempts were made in the 19th century by H. Paul (1880) and H.H. Sweet (1892). During the 20th century a lot of scientific works were convened, such as Khrusheva O.A. (2011) H.A. IIIextMan (2003), D Aleo (1977), Kubozono H. (1990), A.A. De Bon (1998), Tomashevich (2008) and others. Many researchers find telescoping a very important phenomenon in linguistics. For a long time, telescoping was attributed to such a way of word formation as abbreviation.

Later, many people began to consider telescoping as an independent way of word formation, which had a number of features. Today, telescoping is considered as an independent productive way of forming a new vocabulary. There are a number of definitions of this word-formation phenomenon, since telescoping remains a little-studied word-formation process.

When studying the topic in some works, we met with the opinion that telescoping does not belong to the derivative way of word formation. The most frequent are the terms usage presented in the works of Lavrova N.A. "Contamination in Modern English: a fait accompli" (2012). In most foreign works, this word — formation phenomenon is called blending, and the units obtained with its help are blends (blend words).

In foreign publications terminological variability is less, the phenomenon is described as "telescoping", "word blending", "conflation", "fusion", "contamination". It should be noted that terminology describes the same phenomenon in word formation, and not its classification. There is a significant difference in the definitions of telescoping in the linguistic literature. In the works of T. R. Timoshenko, the term «telescope» is used, referred to as such a way of word formation, which is a merger of two (or more) truncated stems or a merger of a full stem with a truncated stem, as a result of which a new word is formed, fully or partially including the value of all its constituent structural elements [Tymoshenko T.P., 1975].

T.R. Timoshenko considers telescoping as an intermediate word-formation model and occupies an intermediate place between linear (suggesting the expansion of the source word, such as affixation) and non-linear models (suggesting the transformation of the source word, such as conversion). Sukhorukova O.N. considers telescopy as an independent method of word formation, which is a fusion of two or more truncated stems or a merger of a full word with a truncated stem, as a result of which a new formation of a telescopic unit appears, which completely or partially combines the values of all its constituent structural components.

In his studies A. Yu. Muradyan uses the term "phrasing" and interprets it as the process of creating a new word and combining the forms and meanings of two words already existing in the system of the language with the obligatory truncation of at least one of the original words and their imposition at the junction [Muradyan A.Yu. 1978].

In the work of Lavrova N.A. uses the term contamination and explains that the word-formation model under consideration is the formation of a linguistic unit as a result of the contraction of morphological fragments, with the loss in the new formation of one or two adjacent identical or similar syllables in meaning [Lavrova N.A. 2012]. In the works of foreign linguists, the topic of telescope formations was widely covered in many linguists' works. S. Grice uses the term blending, which can be defined as follows: blending is the creation of a new word from several lexemes by merging parts of at least two original words, in which either one word is shortened during the merging or there is a phonemic or grapheme superposition of source words [Stefan Th.Gries, 2004] G. Bergstorm telescoping as a process that occurs between two words due to their unification by synonymy or similarity of the meaning of the subordinate element» [Bergstorm, 1906]. J. Algeo refers to blends as "a combination of two or more forms where at least one is shortened in the process of combining", with the words. J. Algeo classifies them as compound words (Algeo.1977). G. Cannon pays special attention to the semantic similarity in telescopic formations, emphasizing that often blends are formed from two synonyms or words close in meaning. He defines blending as "the nesting (folding) of two or more separate shapes into one. Blends usually contain overlap and retain some of the meaning of at least one of the original words, although sometimes the roots are so lost that the blend cannot be analyzed. Štekauer's works give the following view on the definition of blend: "blend comes from two motivated words that have been combined into a new word that cannot be parsed into a determinant defined". Stekauer separates the definitions of compound words and blends, emphasizing that phonemic overlap is important in the formation of a telescopic formation, as well as a new meaning for the word. In the works of Bauer, a blend is considered as «a new lexeme formed by parts of two words in such a way that it is not possible to conduct an explicit (direct) analysis of a word into morphs.

However, Bauer makes it clear that blends usually take the first part of one word and the last part of another, thus contradicting itself. Concerning the difference between the telescoping of other derivational processes, Bauer highlights cases where one original word is left intact in the blend, so that the given word can be regarded as a case of clipping C. Kemmer, who adopted Bauer's definition, gives the following definition of telescopic formation: "a new lexeme formed from parts of two (or more) other lexemes".

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Список литературы

  1. Adams Valerie, An Introduction to Modern English Word-Formation. Longman. 2001.
  2. Alger John., The acronym and its contents. 1975.
  3. Beck C.H. A Synchronic — Diachronic Approach. Munich, 1969.
  4. Buranov J, Mulino A., A Practical Course in English Lexicology. Tashkent, 1990.


Базарбаева, А.М. Телескопия слов / А.М. Базарбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2023. — № 136. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19633 (дата обращения: 04.02.2023).