Принцип экономичности в словообразовании

NovaInfo 135, с.39-40, скачать PDF
Раздел: Филологические науки
Язык: Английский
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В статье показано, что при лингвистическом совершенствовании речевые единицы постоянно сокращаются, пермутируются, устраняются, заимствуются и изменяются по смыслу.

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In 1955, a publication had a significant impact on the history of theoretical linguistics all over Europe. The linguistic economy is a coherent definition of how words and sounds can be used to communicate. The so-called "classical definition" of a particle is that it is a small, localized object that exists in space and time. Is it possible to increase the productivity by dividing time more evenly among different tasks? As the balance between communication needs becomes increasingly unstable, it becomes harder and harder to find a way to meet everyone's needs always change. The natural inertia of human beings is an essential force in the optimization of the linguistic system. Any changes that occur within the system is assessed what never is static. It can be explained by the following dichotomy a single act on the one hand, communication needs to be clear and precise, which adding conspicuous units, on the other hand, remarkable organic inertia. This produces efforts to relax, reduce quantity, reduce specificity and more frequently occurring units that result in sloppy and careless expressions. While inertia is a constant, unchanging component is important.

One of the famous scholar George Kingsley Zipf made a desicion about exploring speech for clarifying its natural points. He made a conclusion about the principle of economy is suitable any aspect of human behaviour. The principle works in every aspect of linguistic evolution. In linguistic enhancement, speech units are always being shortened, permuted, eliminated, borrowed and altered in meaning. However, with the aid of Principle of Least Effort, the balance is always maintained and language users can utilize it in everyday speech. Another scholar whose name is Martinet also encouraged by Zipf's point of view, and he could first explain the term economy, its tendency, model and formulation in language in detail in his writings after 1949. He distinguishs of a conflict between two opposing forces—one of them encourages this principle and the other one seeks to lavish much attention on composition. In addition, in his earlier writings, he only revealed a inclination for economy. The principle of economy in language is a way of correcting mistakes and deficiencies in the utterance so that communication can be effective. Due to the fact that his economic notions are derived merely from diachronic opinion, but Vendryes's economy concept gains much reputation simultaneously. According to the Vendrye's view speech involves an effort; while Martinet's opinion, it is the cause of reducing effort. For decreasing mental and physical efforts of individuals double articulation is extremely significant for synchronic manifestation. Vendryes and Martinet both have opinion which tends to be mutual completion, with the help of several ways to get around this problem.

Besides the principle of economy, there are other principles that are important in language, one of them is called the principle of efficiency. A decade or two is a short period of time in the development of language. However, it might sometimes give us an opportunity to notice wide-scale alterations in the language. In the English and European languages formation of numerous new words and the disappearance the old ones is significant phenomena in languages. This is clearly seen in dictionaries and linguistic literature. It's clear that the procedures that occurred were not caused by the inner factors — alterations of social life and perturbations in the English-speaking society. To review the abbreviations of the 90's and the phrases of teenagers of the 20th century. Consists of a huge amount of newly coined words most linguists' practical material was analyzed for create new lexical units.

Among the numerous clippings were abbreviations, that widely utilized. Take U — University as an example which has more benefits for humans. In 1915 Long started to compile a small dictionary that included 32 abbreviations. The dictionary is composed of some British shortenings such as DORA, ANZAC, WAAC and so on. During the 1930s utilizing abbreviations in speech was popular, but there was still a few acronyms. Numerous clippings like dorm and trig were popular and college students formed some initialisms such as YMCA -Young Men`s Christian Association, and SAE — self-addressed envelope. Many initialisms were created over the years of World War II. The war influenced significantly on forming new items in informal language, such as FO — field officer and SOS — save our souls. America Department started to collect two official lists of shortenings for using war years. The list was incorporated into Army Regulations, followed by a series of changed titled Authorized Abbreviations, Brevity Codes, and Acronyms. Official initialisms could be utilized for the policy and locations. It contains some long items such as USAMSMADHS (which is the longest item in the corpus) — United States Army Medical Service Meat and Dairy Hygiene School. At that time American Speech was the most valued that eas full of newly items over the World War II. In 1941 "Glossary of Army Slang" was collected that was seven paged and mostly consisted of abbreviations. In 1934 Webster's Second Collections were gathered nowadays they are entered the general American vocabulary. In this book there are 5000 abbreviations, totally there are 550000 words and one percent is abbreviated units. Russell concluded that if even half of these items survived, they would play the most significant role in word formation to date. From 1943 to 1966, the Merriam Company and an American Dialect Society committee compiled lists of new words and meanings, which were published annually in the Britannica Book of the Year and the American Dialect Society. In 1951 Robbins started to gather oral and written initialisms from aviation, all of them in total of 202 acronyms. Numerous studies have shown that initialisms are a minor lexical process that primarily produces proper names, which are a minor source of new words peripheral to the general vocabulary. Some older phrases, like Ala (according to in French) is irrelevant to morphological or lexicological point of view; most of them are connected with encyclopedias, atlases, and other reference works. In addition, Thomas Matthews Pearce made an assumption about the atomic age would turn English into a language of acronyms, and initialisms made up 17% of Bryant's space-exploration collection (1968). The majority were abbreviations such as AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) and AVCS (additional voluntary contributions); Her 37 initialisms came in second place, trailing the 103 compound words. Crowley and Sheppard's 1987 edition of Gale's Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary had more than 400,000 acronyms, initialisms, abbreviations, contractions, alphabetic symbols that could be guide to readers about such units and majority of shortenings were associated with the United Kingdom and United States. Nowadays, everyone is adept at forming initialisms with real. Furthermore, they are productive in everyday language, even though their affixed types frequently produce collections or informal tone in educational establishments and family groups. Cannon's corpus (1987) records 177 new items derived from initialisms using the majority of word-formation categories. So, initialisms have the same freedom as nouns. These characters are remembered. And after the mind has been trained to think in symbol language, which is an extremely simple and quick process, it becomes instinctive to speak in symbol language. Today, to find updated collections of initialisms in nearly every subject area, as well as a recognized need for efficient items to serve the ever-growing business community and organizations. As initialisms became popular in various contexts, items such as US(A), USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) surpassed the full forms. The initial condemnatory attitude took longer to change. Wilson (1856) labeled some abbreviations as "unsuitable, either because they are already used for other words, or because they are less understandable than they should be, or have only a sliver of authority to be adopted." He cautioned that some of them might be utilized in regular composition, contractions were avoided; however, he gave suggestions about connecting with catalogues, directories, tables, and family registers. His list (272-300) contained approximately 1,200 abbreviations. Boss (1880) was also against the indiscriminate use of such devices. Years later, Daniel (1946) and the New York Times both criticized the use of initialisms, which were said to produce a sensation similar to eating dehydrated food. AAA (Automobile Association of America) and UOPWA (United Office and Professional Workers of America) were taking over. Time then took up the cause the originally playful sport was said to have become contagion and verbal smog, and the horrible ultimate was still nowhere in sight ("Acronymous Society" 1961).

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Список литературы

  1. Paul Grice, "Studies in the Way of Words" — Harvard University Press 1991.
  2. Rutledge, Terms and Acronyms. British Curriculum Foundation, 2011.
  3. Cristina, Izura, A Nominative Study of Acronyms and Acronym Naming. 2012
  4. Dean, Stahl and Karen Kerchelich. Abbreviations Dictionary, 2011.


Базарбаева, А.М. Принцип экономичности в словообразовании / А.М. Базарбаева. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 135. — С. 39-40. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19537 (дата обращения: 04.02.2023).