Этика и психологические знания в деятельности медицинских работников

№83-1,

Медицинские науки

Одной из основ лечебной деятельности является умение медработника понять больного человека, которое реализуется посредством соблюдения этических и психологических норм общения.

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Ethics is one of the oldest theoretical disciplines, the object of which is morality. The manners and customs of our remote ancestors was their morality, generally accepted norms of behavior. Man's relationship to his family, family, others were fixed by custom, and then had authority, often stronger than the legal norms and laws of society. Under morality is understood as a set of principles or norms of behavior of people regulating their attitude to each other, as well as to society, a certain class, the state, the homeland, the family, etc. and supported by the personal conviction, tradition, upbringing, power of public opinion of the whole society.

The most common and essential norms of human behavior are considered to be moral principles. We can say that morality is a set of norms of behavior. Norms of behavior, because they are manifested in the actions of people, in their behavior, create what is called the moral attitude of people.

The task of ethics is not only to develop a moral code, but also to clarify the question of the origin of morality, the nature of moral concepts and judgments, the criteria of morality, the possibility or impossibility of free choice of actions, responsibility for them, etc. Ethics is closely related to the practical problems of human life

The purpose of contacts between medical professionals and the patient is medical care. Doctors, psychologists, nurses, as well as social workers can be involved in contact with the patient.

In the therapeutic activity between the doctor and the patient formed a special relationship, there are special relationships. Of course the impact on them has many emotional and psychological factors.

During the reception, the collection of data on the condition of the patient should be conducted discreetly. The doctor needs to guide the conversation in the right direction, gently pulling for certain strings in such a way that his patient did not notice it. The doctor during this time to assess the seriousness of the complaints and separate the main thing from the secondary, to help remember the important details, nothing at the same time not forcing. In addition, during the interrogation, you can not use the standard form of conversation between the doctor and the patient — you need to take into account his social status, age, profession and many other factors. They advise to treat children and the elderly with special attention.

The psychology of communication between medical staff and their wards can be significantly influenced by the personality of the employee in a white robe. Qualifications and experience directly affects the formation of positive relationships, and personal flaws play a very bad joke. After all, in such a relationship, the most important thing is the patient's trust in the doctor, without which it is impossible to achieve mutual understanding. A health worker earns a similar attitude to himself if he is calm, patient and harmonious. Many patients do not like when they show a sense of humor, but there are times when it becomes necessary and the task of the doctor — to determine them correctly, in order to avoid an unpleasant situation. And if the doctor does everything right, then gratitude to him will be beyond praise.

In order for the patient-health worker relationship process to be effective, it is necessary to study the psychological aspects of such interaction. For medical psychology interesting motives and values of the doctor, his idea of the ideal patient, as well as certain expectations of the patient from the process of diagnosis, treatment, prevention and rehabilitation, the behavior of a doctor or nurse.

We can talk about the importance for the effective and conflict-free interaction of the patient with health professionals such concepts as communicative competence, i.e. the ability to establish and maintain the necessary contacts with other people. This process involves achieving mutual understanding between communication partners, a better understanding of the situation and the subject of communication. It should be noted that communicative competence is a professionally significant characteristic of a doctor and a nurse. However, despite the fact that in the conditions of the clinic the patient is forced to seek the help of a doctor, communicative competence is important for the patient.

In good contact with the doctor, the patient recovers rather, and the applied treatment has a better effect, much less side effects and complications.

One of the basics of medical activity is the ability of a health worker to understand a sick person. In the process of therapeutic activity plays an important role ability to listen to the patient, which is necessary for the formation of contact between him and the physician, in particular, the doctor. The ability to listen to a sick person not only helps to determine-to diagnose the disease to which he may be subject, but also in itself the listening process has a favorable interaction on the psychological contact of the doctor and the patient.

It is important to note that it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities (profile) of the disease in contact with the patient, as in the common in clinical medicine therapeutic departments are patients of various profiles. This, for example, patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, kidneys, etc.and often their painful conditions require long-term treatment, which has an impact on the process of relationship between the health worker and the patient. A long separation from the family and the usual professional activities, as well as anxiety for the state of their health, cause a complex of different psychogenic reactions in patients.

But not only these factors affect the psychological atmosphere and the condition of the patient. As a result of psychogeny, the course of the main somatic disease can become more complicated, which, in turn, worsens the mental state of patients. And, besides, in therapeutic offices on inspection and treatment there are patients with complaints on activity of internal organs, quite often without even knowing that these somatic violations of psychogenic character.