This article highlights the topic of speech development of a child of preschool age . In the mental development of the child, speech is of exceptional importance. With the development of speech is associated with the formation of both the individual as a whole, and all mental processes. Therefore, the definition of directions and conditions of speech development in children are among the most important pedagogical tasks. The problem of speech development is one of the most urgent.. With the development of speech is associated with the formation of both the individual as a whole, and all mental processes. Therefore, the definition of directions and conditions of speech development in children are among the most important pedagogical tasks.
The problem of speech development is one of the most urgent.
The 21st century is the age of computer technology. Children seem to have everything for their development: computers, phones, TVs, but for some reason more and more children meet with speech disorders.The speech of the preschool child is developing in several directions. First, it improves in the process of communication with others. Secondly, it is the speech that allows the child's thinking to develop in preschool age.Each preschooler must learn his or her native language first of all in order to learn to communicate with others. The sooner the child gets the opportunity to learn his native language, the better he will know it in the future. Gradually, under the influence of the complexity of practical activities and the development of speech in the child there is a figurative and verbal and logical thinking.In preschool age, the child learns such forms of thinking as the concept, judgment, reasoning. With age, the concept of objects and phenomena of reality in the child becomes deeper, more generalized, they include more and more significant qualities. Expanding the circle of communication requires the child to fully master the means of communication, the main of which is speech. High requirements for the development of speech and makes complicated activities of the child.
The development of speech goes in several directions: its practical use in communication with other people is improved, at the same time it becomes the basis for the restructuring of mental processes, a tool of thinking. This determines the relevance of this topic.
Speech development of children is one of the main components of their readiness for school. The study of the level of language acquisition allows you to get data not only about the speech abilities of children, but also about their holistic mental development. In order to understand the essence of speech readiness for school education, we must clearly understand what is included in the content of oral speech abilities and what components are the most important for the study of speech.
Speech development is considered as the development of skills to understand and use language: the development of phonemic hearing and sound analysis, vocabulary, awareness of the composition of words, the formation of grammatical categories, the development of communication skills, skills and coherent speech. Language acquisition is an important condition for mental development, since the content of the historical experience assigned by the child in ontogenesis is generalized and reflected in the speech form and primarily in the meanings of words .
The timely development of the dictionary is one of the important factors in preparing for school. Children who do not have sufficient vocabulary, have great difficulty in learning, not finding the right words to Express their thoughts. Teachers note that students with a rich dictionary better solve arithmetic problems, easier to master the skill of reading, grammar, more active in mental work in the classroom.
Features of the development of children's dictionary is quite fully studied in physiology, psychology, psycholinguistics.
In the development of the vocabulary of preschool children there are two sides: the quantitative growth of vocabulary and its qualitative development, i.e. mastering the meanings of words. Preschool age is a period of rapid enrichment of the dictionary. Its growth is dependent on the living conditions and education, so in the literature data on the number of words of preschool children of the same age are very different. The first meaningful words appear in children by the end of the first year of life. In modern domestic methodology the norm is considered 10-12 words to year. The development of speech comprehension is largely ahead of the active vocabulary. After a year and a half, the active dictionary is enriched at a rapid pace, and by the end of the second year of life it is 300-400 words, and by three years it can reach 1500 words. A huge leap in the development of the dictionary is not only and not so much due to the mastery of the ways of formation of words from the speech of adults, but due to the mastery of the ways of formation of words. The development of the dictionary is carried out by the words denoting the objects of the immediate environment, actions with them, as well as their individual characteristics. In subsequent years, the number of words also increases rapidly, but the rate of this increase is somewhat slower. The third year of life is the period of the greatest increase in the active vocabulary. By 4 years the number of words reaches 1900, in 5 years-up to 2000-2500, and in 6-7 years — up to 3500-4000 words.
Individual differences in the dictionary are observed in these age periods. According to D. B. Elkonin, the differences in the dictionary are "greater than in any other sphere of mental development" .
Especially the number of nouns and verbs is growing rapidly, the number of adjectives used is growing more slowly. This is due, firstly, to the conditions of education (adults pay little attention to the familiarity of children with the signs and qualities of objects), and secondly, the nature of the adjective as the most abstract part of speech.
The first words of the very peculiar characteristic of polysomatism. These first words are, in fact, not yet words. The real word is born as the designation of the object and is connected directly with the gesture that indicates the object.
After 4-5 years, children who speak, refer to the new word is not one, but many subjects. Learning from adults ready words and operating with them, the child does not yet realize all the semantic content that they Express. Children can be assimilated the subject relevance of the word, and the system of abstractions and generalizations behind it, no.
Figurative meanings of words are not immediately assimilated by children. First, there is the assimilation of the basic value. The meanings of children's words are dynamic. L. S. Vygotsky drew attention to the fact that the same word with the identity of the relationship to the objects and phenomena of the world "means" for a child of different ages and different levels of development is different. In a child aged 3 to 5 years, the process of mastering a clear subject relation of words and their specific meanings occupies a Central place, and in 5 to 6 years — a system of so-called everyday concepts, but in which emotional-figurative, visual connections still dominate.
Thus, in its specific-related form, the meaning of the word arises before the concept and is a prerequisite for its formation. The concept, designated by the word, being a generalized image of reality, grows, expands, deepens as the child develops, as the scope of his activities expands and becomes more diverse, the range of people and objects with which he comes into contact increases. In the course of its development, the child's speech ceases to be dependent on the sensual situation .
Mastering the grammatical structure of speech has a huge impact on the overall development of the child, providing him with a transition to the study of language at school. The formation of the grammatical structure of speech involves the formation of the morphological side of speech (changing words by gender, numbers, cases), ways of word formation and syntax (development of different types of phrases and sentences). Without mastering the grammar of voice communication is impossible.
Mastering the grammatical structure is very difficult for children, because the grammatical categories are characterized by abstraction and distraction. In addition, the grammatical structure of the Russian language is characterized by the presence of a large number of unproductive forms and exceptions to grammatical rules and regulations.
The process of mastering the child's grammatical system is complex, it is associated with Analytics — synthetic activity of the cerebral cortex. The regularities of mastering the grammatical side of speech are revealed by the famous linguist A. N. Studded. According to the study, the child learns the grammatical system of the native language by the age of three in all its most typical manifestations. Mastering the child's grammatical system of speech takes place in the form of mastering grammatical categories, which are characterized by the presence of knowledge. The time and sequence of assimilation of certain categories depends on the nature of their purpose. In children, it is difficult to assimilate those forms, the specific meaning of which is not connected with the logic of children's thought, i.e. what is not clear in meaning .
Mastering the ways of word formation is one of the sides of speech development of children. Preschoolers use mainly morphological method of word formation, which is based on a combination of different meaning of morphemes. For the formation of words, the child must master the word-formation models, lexical meanings of the word bases, and the meaning of the significant parts of the word. In psychological and psycholinguistic literature the word formation is compared with children's word creation, which indicates the active assimilation of children's grammatical system. By the end of pre-school age children's word formation is closer to the normative, and therefore the intensity of word creation is reduced.