О путях сохранения психического здоровья в педагогической деятельности

№90-1,

психологические науки

В статье описывается о путях саморегуляции эмоциональным состоянием педагогов — управление личностью, поведением, эмоциями и действиями.

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In modern conditions of humanization of education is particularly acute problem of personal development of students, the study of their individual characteristics. It is necessary to create conditions that ensure the fullest realization of the potential of the individual and the development of its abilities, the formation of the individuality of each individual student. In this regard, the role of the teacher's personality in the process of formation of students ' individuality increases. The expression of this integration trend was the principle formulated in the national psychology: "learning should be subordinated to the process of personal development." Before that, the school had been working in a different paradigm for too long, being distracted from the obvious fact that its "products" — a person, personality, individuality, and having as the main task the assimilation of students ' amount of knowledge. Therefore, today the thesis of subordination of learning to the process of personal development does not sound trivial. This thesis is not only declared by scientists. The researches characterizing influence of the teacher on the personality of his pupils are carried out. In this regard, there is a growing interest in the study of the style of teachers. The main questions devoted to the style of activity of teachers are covered in the works of E. A. Klimov, V. S. Merlin, E. p. Ilyin, V. A. Tolochek, M. R. Shchukin and other researchers. In the works of these authors covered a wide range of problems related to the style of teaching: the psychological structure of the activity, the style of the teacher, the process of formation of the personality of the teacher, etc.At the same time insufficiently presented studies highlighting the relationship of the style of the teacher with emotional States. The teacher has to resist the influence of emotional factors of modern professional environment. That is, he needs to fulfill all the requirements of the profession, while optimally realize themselves in it and get satisfaction from their work.

The activity of the teacher is continuously connected with communication, prone to symptoms of gradual emotional fatigue and devastation, which adversely affects the performance of professional activities, deterioration of mental and physical well-being.

Burnout syndrome is a process of gradual loss of emotional, cognitive and physical energy, manifested in the symptoms of emotional, mental exhaustion, physical fatigue, personal detachment and reduced satisfaction with the performance of work. It is seen as the result of unsuccessfully resolved stress in the workplace.

It can be assumed that the burnout syndrome, characterized by the emotional dryness of the teacher, the expansion of the sphere of saving emotions, personal detachment, ignoring the individual characteristics of students, has a strong influence on the nature of professional communication of the teacher. This professional deformation prevents the full management of the educational process, the provision of necessary psychological assistance, the formation of a professional team. The real pedagogical practice shows that today the fact of loss of interest to the pupil as to the personality, rejection it such what it is, simplification of the emotional party of professional communication is quite accurately traced. Many educators note have themselves the availability of mental wealth, destabilizing professional activities (anxiety, despondency, depression, apathy, disappointment, chronic fatigue).

The most common means for the prevention of professional burnout is a continuous psychological and pedagogical education of the teacher, improving his skills. This is due to the fact that the knowledge gained during training at the University quickly become obsolete. In American literature, there is even a unit of measurement of obsolescence of specialist knowledge, the so-called" half-life of competence", borrowed from nuclear physics. In this case, it means the length of time after Graduation, when as a result of obsolescence of knowledge, as new knowledge, as new information specialist competence is reduced by 50%.

An important aspect in the professional activity of the teacher is the self-regulation of the emotional state. The need for self-regulation arises when the teacher is faced with a new, unusual, intractable problem for him, which has no single solution or involves several alternative options. Self-regulation is necessary in a situation where the teacher is in a state of heightened emotional and physical stress, which encourages him to impulsive actions, or if he is in a situation of evaluation by children, colleagues and other people.

Psychological bases of emotional state self-regulation include management of both cognitive processes and personality: behavior, emotions and actions. Currently, neurolinguistic programming is used for self-regulation of mental States.

In line with this direction G. Dyakonov developed a series of exercises focused on the restoration of personal resources. Knowing yourself, your needs and how to meet them, a person can more effectively, rationally distribute their forces during each day, the whole school year.

Autogenous training is used in such activities that cause a person increased emotional tension. Pedagogical work is associated with intensive communication, both with children and their parents, which requires emotional-volitional regulation from the teacher. Self-training is a system of exercises for self-regulation of mental and physical States. It is based on the conscious application of various means of psychological impact on the human body and nervous system for the purpose of their relaxation or activation. The use of auto-training techniques allows a person to purposefully change the mood, well-being, which positively affects his performance, health.

In addition to the exercises of autogenous training, other methods are used to regulate emotional States. So, for example G. N. Sytin in his book " Life-giving power. Help yourself."offers a method of verbal-shaped emotional-volitional management of the human condition, which is based on the methods of psychotherapy and some aspects of alternative medicine.

Widely used psychocorrection as a set of psychological techniques used by a psychologist to provide psychological effects on the behavior of a healthy person. Psychocorrection work is carried out in order to improve the person's adaptation to life situations; to relieve everyday external and internal tensions; to prevent and resolve conflicts that people face. Psychocorrection can be carried out both individually and in a group. Groups of people created for psychocorrective purposes may be of the following types: T-groups, meeting groups, Gestalt groups, psychodrama groups, body therapy groups, skill training groups. Each type of group is aimed at solving specific goals, involves interaction according to certain rules. With regard to teaching activities, we describe the scope of practical application of each type of group.

T-groups (groups of social and psychological training). Work in it is aimed at helping the teacher to better know himself as a person; to develop an individual style of activity, to learn to better understand their colleagues and parents; with whom to have to engage in communication about the training and education of children; learning the correct behavior in situations of interpersonal communication.