Педагогическое взаимодействие в учебном процессе


педагогические науки

В процессе обучения и воспитания учитель взаимодействует с учащимися через образовательную, обучающую и развивающую деятельность влиянием стилей педагогического общения.

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As pedagogical dialogue usually understand professional dialogue of the teacher with pupils in the course of training and the education, having certain pedagogical functions and directed on creation of a favorable psychological climate, and also on other sorts psychological optimisation of educational activity and mutual relations between the teacher and pupils.

Pedagogical dialogue, being difficult socially-psychological process of mutual understanding between people, it is carried out on following basic channels: speech (verbal — from an armour. Words oral, verbal) and nonverbal (nonverbal) dialogue channels. Speech as dialogue means, simultaneously acts and as an information source, and as a way of interaction of interlocutors.

Into structure of speech dialogue enter:

1. Value and sense of words, phrases («the Reason of the person is shown in clearness of its speech»). Plays an important role accuracy of the use of a word, its expressiveness and availability, correctness of construction of a phrase and its clarity, correctness of a pronunciation of sounds, words, expressiveness and sense of intonation.

2. The Speech sound phenomena: tempo of speech (fast, average, slowed down), modulation of height of a voice (smooth, sharp), a voice tonality (high, low), a rhythm (uniform, faltering), a timbre (rolling, hoarse, creaking), intonation, diction of speech.

Supervision show that the most attractive in dialogue is the smooth, quiet, measured manner of speech.

3. Expressive qualities of a voice: the characteristic specific sounds arising at dialogue: laughter, хмыканье, crying, whisper, sighs, etc.; dividing sounds are a cough; zero sounds are pauses, and also sounds назализации — "hm-hm", "e-e-e", etc.

Researches show that in the daily certificate of communications of the man of his word make 7 %, sounds and intonations of 38 %, nonverbal interaction-53 of % («we speak a voice, we talk all over» Publitsy).

Pedagogical dialogue becomes really creative process if the high informative speech culture and technics in a combination to ease of the introduction into contact, the is active-positive relation of the teacher to the pupils, the developed empathy, a reflexion, перцептивными and other abilities is warmed by warmth of human feeling and love of children.

Allocate following kinds of pedagogical interaction:

1. Authoritative style. At authoritative style the tendency on rigid management and universal control is characteristic. It is expressed that the teacher often resorts to mandative tone, does sharp remarks. The abundance of tactless attacks to one members of group and unreasoned praise of others Is evident.

At such style of a management the teacher individually solves all questions, concerning abilities to live of class collective, defines each specific goal, proceeding only from own installations, strictly supervises the decision of any problem and subjectively estimates the reached results. Any initiative of schoolboys is perceived by such teacher as the willfulness certificate, as an encroachment on its authority and advantage.

This style of a management is an implementer of tactics of dictatorship and guardianship, and in case of counteraction of schoolboys to imperious pressure of the teacher inevitably conducts to confrontation.

2. Popustitelsky, or ignoring style. Popustitelsky style of a management is characterised by aspiration of the teacher as much as possible to facilitate the problem and not to incur superfluous, in its opinion, responsibility. Formally carrying out the duties, such teacher in practice tries to withdraw from a management of collective of schoolboys, by all means to avoid a role of the tutor, having limited to performance of especially teaching function.

This style of a management is an implementer of tactics of non-interference, original "peaceful co-existence" at the heart of what the indifference, disinterest problems of school life lies.

Consequence of the similar approach of the teacher to the decision of the it is professional — pedagogical problems there is an absence at it adequate knowledge reflecting a reality of mutual relations in class collective, inability positively to influence formation of the person of pupils. The discipline in classes, руководимых such teachers, quite often happens unsatisfactory, and progress leaves much to be desired...

Clearly that these teachers come to grief that is called in all respects. At so discharged position of the teacher it is impossible to count on any emotional contact between it and a class.

3. Democratic style. "One man is no man" — the old proverb says. Perhaps, anywhere so justice of this wisdom, as in rising generation education convincingly is not shown. Any efforts even the most knowing and skilled instructor will be gone for nothing if he does not achieve support from the wards, will not see in them possible allies and assistants.

At democratic style of a management the teacher not only never happens is lonely, but also in minority it appears extremely seldom. All the matter is that the basic control lever used by such teacher, — a support on collective.

Democratic style of a management of pupils — the unique way of the organisation of real cooperation of the teacher and schoolboys.

The major feature of activity of such teacher — orientation to the person of pupils that is why both at lessons, and in after-hour work it is aimed at increase of activity of schoolboys, on awakening of their initiative, on attraction of everyone to the decision of the general problems.