Деятельность как фактор развития

№92-1,

педагогические науки

В данной статье освещается о влиянии на развитие наследственности, среды и воспитания, которое дополняется еще чрезвычайно важным фактором как деятельностью личности. Под этим понимается все многообразие занятий человека, все то, что он делает.

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Influence on the development of heredity, environment and education is complemented by an extremely important factor — the activity of the individual. This means all the variety of human activities, all the things that he does. From time immemorial have come to us observations: what and how does a child-so he will grow up; how much sweat-so much and success. Apparent direct link between the results of the development and intensity of activity. This is another General pattern of development, which can be formulated as follows: the more a person works in a certain area, the higher the level of development in this area. Of course, the limits of such laws are not unlimited, they are determined by "restraining" factors-abilities, age, intensity and organization of the activity itself, etc.

In the process of activity is a comprehensive and holistic development of man, formed his attitude to the world. To activity led to the formation of the projected image of the individual, it is necessary to organize and reasonably direct. This is the greatest difficulty of practical education. Unfortunately, in many cases, it can not provide opportunities for development; pupils are sometimes deprived of the most necessary — active participation in social, labor, educational activities, are doomed to its passive contemplation and the hardening of ready-made truths.

The main activities of children and adolescents — play, teaching, work. Direction stands out for educational, social, athletic, artistic, technical, craft, hedonic (aimed at having fun) activities. A special kind of activity is communication.

Activity can be active and passive. Even the smallest child already manifests itself as an active being. He makes demands on adults, peers, expresses his attitude to people, objects. In the future, under the influence of environment and education activity can both increase and decrease. You can give as many examples as you want, when a person is busy, works a lot, but acts without desire, without mood, as they say, carelessly. Of course, such activities do not lead to good results. Good development is provided only by an active, emotionally colored activity in which a person puts his whole soul, in which he fully realizes his opportunities, expresses himself as a person. Such activity brings satisfaction, becomes a source of energy and inspiration. That is why it is important not so much the activity itself, as the activity of the individual, manifested in this activity.

Activity in education allows the student to quickly and successfully master the social experience, develops communication skills, forms an attitude to the surrounding reality. Cognitive activity provides intellectual development of the child. It is characterized not only by the need to solve cognitive problems, but also the need to apply the knowledge in practice. Labor activity stimulates the rapid and successful formation of the spiritual and moral world of the individual, determines the willingness to work hard and successfully.

All manifestations of activity have the same constant source — needs. The diversity of human needs generates a variety of activities to meet them. To show a growing person useful, as much as possible to weaken the false direction of activity-a constant and at the same time a very difficult task of education. The difficulty is that the needs and motives of activity in the period of intensive formation of a person are very mobile and changeable. The types and nature of activities should be rapidly changed at different age levels. Mass school education does not always keep up with these changes, and must keep up to avoid irreversible consequences.

Human activity-a prerequisite for the development of his abilities and talents, to achieve success. No matter how great teachers or took care of the child, without his own work, he will achieve little. K. D. Ushinsky noted that the student must learn himself, and the teacher gives him material for teaching, supervises the educational process. Therefore, with the right " — education student is not so much the object of pedagogical influence as the subject, i.e. an active participant in their own education.

Activity of the person, as well as activity, has selective character. The activity of the person is not influenced by any, not any influences, but mainly those that Express the needs of the person, turned to his personality, based on his own attitude to reality. "The main business of education just lies in the fact, — wrote S. L. Rubinstein, — to thousands of threads to link man to life — so that on all sides before him stood the task, for it is meaningful, also appealing, which he considers his, in which it is included. This is most important because the main source of all moral problems, all dislocations in behavior — this is the spiritual emptiness that is formed in people when they become indifferent to the life around them, move aside, feel in it by outside observers, ready to give up everything — then everything becomes uneasy."

The activity of the individual is not only a prerequisite but also a result of the development. Education achieves the goal when it manages to form a socially active, proactive, creative person, bringing joy to themselves and people. Reasonable, pedagogically verified organization of the student provides activity in all its manifestations. To put the younger person in the position of an active figure, to arm him with such methods of activity that enable the active application of forces, to study his personal identity, to reveal his potential in every possible way — these are the functions of the educator, reasonably directing the process of personal development.