Пословицы и поговорки — отражение души и ума народа

№94-1,

филологические науки

Данная работа повествует о пословицах и поговорках и об их способности аккумулировать в себе моральные и этические ценности, поверья и убеждения народа. Народы, живущие в разных и отдаленных странах, могут использовать в речи пословицы и поговорки с похожими или же подобными значениями. Причиной данного явления может быть религия, так как все мировые религии призывают к доброте, заботе о ближних и правильном нравственном поведении.

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The issue of interconnection between a language, culture and people is the subject of interest of philosophy, sociology, linguistics. In the article we have an intention to study proverbs and sayings from the linguacultural point of view. Proverbs and sayings occupy a special niche in any language. They are accumulators and at the same time indicators of peoples’ beliefs, values, attitudes towards different life situations and ideas. Before moving further we need to define the meaning of the words “proverb” and ”saying”. According to Macmillan English Dictionary: “A proverb is a short well-known statement that gives practical advice about life”. While “a saying is a well-known statement about what often happens in life”. Proverbs and sayings are usually short as for their structures but huge, wise and teaching if we speak about their meanings and aims. Sometimes proverbs and sayings have structures reminding us the structure of phraseological units and they are made according to some cliches. Proverbs and saying are often easily remembered, but they are difficult to be understood. The trust of their work is that language is a key to the heart of the people and there is a need to understand their language because it is the hallmarks of the people's identity, needed in boosting the self-confidence, motivation and innovation that drive their development. A language does not exist independently out of culture, the relationship of language with culture is dual in the sense that language is a part of culture as well as a tool for the expression of culture. As an essential part of culture, a language is more than a means of communication.

Proverbs are the simple truths of life that contain the ethical, moral values of a society. Aside the aesthetic and figurative value in proverbs, it presents a graphic statement that expresses a truth of experience. Its beauty is in what it says which is readily perceived and accepted as an incontrovertible truth. The truth presented in the proverbs is not logical, a priori or intuitive truth: it is often an empirical fact based upon and derived from the people's experience of life, human relationship and interaction with the world of nature.

The perception of proverbs is related to a very powerful and effective instrument for the transmission of culture, philosophy, social morality, values and sensibility of the people.

In essence, their values do not lie only in what they reveal the thoughts of the people; proverbs are models of compressed or forceful language that make people behave according to norms and morales of the country.

Proverbs encapsulate the worldview of a people, and serves as an instrument of arousing, defining, manifesting and establishing the expectations, aspirations and consciousness of the people. So, proverbs serve as a linguistic confirmation of the totality of a people's worldview.

The English, Russian and Uzbek proverbs, particularly the proverbs whose subject matter is centered on ethic-related themes such as care for others, advice, reproach and punishment, conflict resolution and warning are selected in the table below.

ENGLISH PROVERBS

RUSSIAN PROVERBS

UZBEK PROVERBS

You cannot hide the awl in the bag.

Шила в мешке не утаишь.

Ойни этак билан тўсиб бўлмас.

An empty vessel makes the most noise.

В пустой бочке звону больше.

Оз сутлик сигир кўп мағрайди.

The apple never falls far from the tree.

Яблоко от яблони недалеко падает.

Онасига қараб қизини қил.

Once bitten, twice shy.

Обжегся на молоке, дует на воду.

Оғзини куйдирган пувлаб ичар.

A rotten apple injuires its neighbours.

Паршивая овца все стадо портит.

Қозон яқинида юрсанг қораси юқади.

Be careful what you wish for, you just might get it.

Мысли материальны.

Яхши гапга хам, ёмон гапга хам фаришта омин қилади.

Birds of a feather flock together.

Рыбак рыбака видит сдалека.

Қўр қўрни узоғдан қўради.

Do not bark if you can’t bite.

Не садись не в свои сани.

Баланд дорга осилма.

Don’t play with edged tools.

Не играй с огнем.

Олов билан ўйнама.

Give a dog a bad name and hang him.

Береги платье снову, а честь смолоду.

Соғлик ва обруй кетганда, қайтариб бўлмайди.

Hawks will not pick out Hawk’s eyes.

Свои люди сочтемся.

Қарға қарғани кўзини чўқиламайди.

He laughs best who laughs last.

Хорошо смеется тот, кто смеется последним.

Бировнинг устидан кулмагин зинхор, сенинг хам устингдан кунадиганлар бор.

In order to get where you want to go, first have to leave where you are.

На двух стульях не усидишь.

Дарахт бир жойда кўкаради.

It is better to die on one’s feet than to live on one’s knees.

Умирать так с музыкой.

Олма еб оғригандан кўра, урик еб ўлган яхши.

Let him who is without sin cast the first stone.

Пусть тот, кто без греха, первым в меня бросит камень.

Айибсиз Худо.

He who digs a pit for others will fall in it himself.

Не рой яму другому, сам попадешь.

Ўзгаларга чуқур қозма, ўзинг тушасан.

The creators of proverbs and sayings are the people living in the target area, engaged in everyday chorus. The peoples living in different and distant parts of the world, worshipping different gods use the proverbs and sayings which have similar or absolutely identical meanings. It can be interpreted as following peoples may confess various religions, but the dogmata and postulates of any religion lies in the struggle between the kindness and evil, a good treatment towards surroundings etc. These beliefs found their reflection in the nation’s language. Spiritual and cultural values, beliefs and moral norms that exist approximately in all the peoples’ outlook and conducts are to be considered as universal values.

Culture is a veritable instrument of development, language is a carrier of culture and if the relationship between language and culture is like that between two sides of the same coin, then the role of proverb as a metaphorical use of language cannot be overemphasized in any development discourse. There is invaluable connection between language and development, culture, mentality, morality of the people speaking in a particular language. With particular emphasis on how the use of proverbs and sayings and their lessons could help revive moral and cultural values, and thus be used as a veritable instrument of development.

Список литературы

  1. Macmillan English Dictionary London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002, Ps 1135, 1262.
  2. Adeyemi, Adegoju.. Empowering African Languages: Rethinking the strategies. The Journal of Pan African Studies. 2008. Vol. 3 No. 3.
  3. Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago; L, 1980
  4. Пермяков Г.Л. Избранные пословицы и поговорки народов Востока. Москва. «Наука»1968