Диалекты и идиолекты

№94-1,

филологические науки

Другим представителем диалектных разновидностей из рассматриваемых в данной статье является социальный диалект. Как правило, этот диалект широко используется я могу представителями определенного социально-экономического класса. Чтобы проиллюстрировать это, мы можем обратиться к рабочим диалектам в Англии.

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I want to highlight that non-standard English language is abundant and varied with dialects. It is interesting to note, that dialect, generally everyone thinks, is such kind of words that they understand, however, in fact these words a little bit more doubtful than at first seems to be. It is an obvious fact that the word “dialect” comes from the Ancient Greek “dialektos”. A dialect may be renowned from other dialects of the same language by the special peculiarities of any part of the linguistic structure, in phonology, morphology, or even syntax. It should be said, that in the sound system of American English, for instance, certain dialects make out the vowel in “caught” from that in “cot,” while others do not, and in some dialects “greasy” is pronounced with an “s” sound and in others with a “z” sound. If we take into the consideration morphology, it would lead us to believe, that various dialects in the Atlantic states have “clim,” “clum,” “clome,” or “cloome” instead of “climbed,” and, however, in syntax, there are “sick to his stomach,” “sick at his stomach,” “sick in,” “sick on,” and “sick with.” On the level of vocabulary, examples of dialectal differences include American English “subway,” contrasting with British English “underground”; and “corn,” which means “maize” in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, “wheat” in England, and “oats” in Scotland. Nevertheless, while dialects of the same language differ, they still have a mutual consent of features.

Having watched a huge amount of various English speaking-movies and charting with my friends form foreign counties, I came to the conclusion that they use the large number of dialects. Sometimes we may come across with the situations when people may use dialect in incorrect way. It means that incorrect usage happens when a person does not catch a word’s true meaning or the correct grammar or syntax of a sentence. Such kinds of mistakes or misunderstandings are often down to poor education or learning difficulties. At times it is thought that only a few people have an ability of speaking and understanding the dialects. Currently, dialects are not dying out. Scanning though some literature I revealed that there are some kinds of dialects. They are:

  • Country dialect
  • Urban dialect
  • Regional dialect
  • Social dialect
  • Working-class dialect

Let me start describing all these kinds from country dialect. Here I can say that this type of dialect is not as widespread as it was before, however, the position of urban dialect now is moving forward because of the growing and developing of the cities and countries also large numbers of immigrants taking up residence. Studying carefully regional dialect, it should be kept in mind that we usually use it in order to speak about a certain geographical area or places. Another representative of dialects varieties is the social dialect. Generally, this dialect is widely used by I can members of a specific socioeconomic class. To illustrate this point we may refer to the working-class dialects in England.

Having searched different information resources I found out different ways of dialects explanations. For example, H. W. Fowler defines a dialect as "a variety of a language which prevails in a district, with local peculiarities of vocabulary, pronunciation and phrase". The Dictionary of Linguistics defines dialect as “a variety of a language used by people from a particular geographic area.” It is often said that from historical linguists’ points of view “every speech form as a dialect of the older medium from which it was developed”; perhaps, we should also point out the fact that modern Romance languages such as French and Italian developed from dialects of Latin.

Coming back to the theme of the qualification paper, it should be noted that Non-standard dialects have vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation attributes which are equally detailed in structure.

The language which is varied unique to a single speaker of the language is called an idiolect. It is well-known fact, that almost all speakers use several idiolects in their everyday life, of course, depending on the conditions of communication. One of the most striking feature of this statement that the idea of idiolect concerns to a very specific phenomenon the speech variety, or linguistic system, used by a particular person. All those idiolects that have enough in common to appear at least superficially alike belong to a dialect. “...One cannot so much as explain what an idiolect is without invoking the notion of a language considered as a social phenomenon” Summing up all that has been said, if follows that idiolects should be understood as including partial, and partially incorrect, collections of beliefs about the common language.

Список литературы

  1. Арнольд И.В. Лексикология современного английского языка. – Москва: Высш. шк., 1986 г.
  2. Антрушина Г.Б., Афанасьева О.В., Морозова Н.Н. Лексикология английского языка. – Дрофа. 2004 г. – с. 9.
  3. Судзиловский Г.А. Сленг - Что это такое? – М: Военное издательство Министерство обороны, 1973 г.