The linguistic consciousness of the participants of communication depends on various kinds of stereotypes — social, religious, age, gender [1, 2, 3, etc.]. The sphere of linguistic consciousness is understood as a dynamic and complex environment of individuals, which exists in the form of various speech constructions and represents the unity of cognitive, emotional and linguistic processes [4, p. 115].
The social status, cultural level, age and gender of an individual are reflected in his verbal strategies, as well as in the texts produced for him, aimed at impact, including in advertising. Thus, social stereotypes are represented in speech.
A.A. Zalevskaya defines “representation” as an individual’s means of substitution that is verbally described as lexical meaning. The author considers attributes, concepts, images, prototypes, propositions, frames and stereotypes [5, p. 98] to be the forms of presentation of meaning in the mind of a person.
In the framework of advertising communication, the representation is the active process of selecting, structuring and presenting information by the addressee through some language techniques, during which the represented referent is endowed with some signs. Gender stereotypes are represented in advertising discourse using a different set of linguistic and extralinguistic means. They form the value structure of the statement, focused on a specific recipient, since belonging to a particular gender is an integral “most deep-seated, fixed characteristic of each person” [6, p. 285].
The representation of gender stereotypes in advertising discourse contributes to the self-identification of the participants of the target gender group. In other words, such parameters of communicants as social, cultural, age and gender affiliation trigger relevant cognitive categories (schemes). Further processing of information about the recipient of a group's statements is controlled by these schemes [7, p. 203–219]. Interpretation of specified cognitive categories of advertising discourse leads to a certain linguistic consciousness and stereotypes of a certain group and serves as a means of self-identification of its participants.
Stereotypes are social phenomena that are determined by sociocultural mechanisms, they are interpreted as forms of information processing and the state of knowledge of participants in communication [8, p. 96–97]. Stereotypes can be verbalized or non-verbalized [9, p. 16].
We consider the linguistic representation of gender stereotypes, by which we mean verbalized concepts containing information associated with a certain gender, produced by social and cultural mechanisms, implemented in communication. In this article, we are interested primarily in the representation of gender stereotypes in the English-language advertising discourse, mainly in British advertising. The material selection criteria were, firstly, the formal — semantic feature, that is, the explicit or implicit content in the advertising text of gender semantics, and secondly, the lexical and morphological feature, that is, the presence of lexical and morphological units with a specific gender value.
Each of the sexes in different language cultures is assigned a different set of value attributes, which are mandatory. They regulate behavior and influence verbal communication. Gender relations are expressed by gender stereotypes that are “actualized in the public consciousness of a certain culture and reflect a set of characteristics attributed to a particular sex. These are cultural and socially conditioned opinions and presuppositions about the qualities, attributes and norms of behavior of both sexes and their reflection in the language ”[8, p. 189]. We found that in the English advertising discourse, women are more socially stereotyped than men. This is especially evident in advertising messages, potential recipients of which are men. Women’s roles are limited to housekeeping (raising children, cleaning the house, shopping, etc.) and having sex.
If the advertising text containing the pronouns she, her, herself, or the tokens woman, girl, lady, wife, girlfriend, etc., is targeted at a male audience, associative signs of tricks are added to the gender sign (Then I caught her $ 65 on make– up.) annoyance (We`d like to thank all the nagging mothers who made these performances possible. 10,000 words in a day, roughly 9, 950 too many.), restrictions on men's freedom (She told me it is difficult to understand, it’s difficult to understand, it’s difficult to understand, weakness, limitations ( You can’t be ch with its feminine side. Chicks just want to play games.). There is also the opposite tendency, when in male advertising a referent with feminine traits combines the prototypical properties of attractiveness (Free stuff this way — 100 sexiest girls.) : may awaken animal instincts. siren was her voice. or signs of family and housekeeping (There’s only one mother. Yours mother warned you about me.).
Thus, in the male linguistic consciousness, a woman is represented as the weaker sex; she fulfills the stereotypical roles of a wife, a friend, and a mother in society and possesses corresponding typical gender qualities.
In advertising messages targeted at a female audience, the female assistant is presented with a different set of associative features. The text contains the same lexemes and pronouns as in the male advertisements: Reverso Duetto’s It is also a case that you’ve seen it and that it’s me, my, you, your We, us, our, describe the addressee / addressees of the female sex. loss of radiance, see me, not my makeup., and implicit units that reveal gender semantics (Ever happy you had hair c It’s a natural finish for women, it’s perfect for summer season. In advertising messages targeting women, the characteristic features of beauty (As we know, real beauty is more than skin deep.), Elegance (When day) are added to the exhibited characteristic of the kind of referent. Duetto's case.), attractiveness (Pretty as a picture. Cheerleaders of the year.), perfect (Perfect 10 lavishes, 10), ready to come on. help (help your daughter with oily / combination of skin with blemishes being a common problem. Moms have a solution.), matching fashion trends (He often sends you a message r. On the Off System. Fashion, beauty, health, shopping.), health (protection of the hair). A radiant tan, healthy skin, complete confidence.), Vision (which you put on.), Transferred to the addressee of the statement.
Note that an important feature of the feminine in the English-speaking female advertising is the stereotype of “compliance with the norm”, especially with regard to appearance. A typical method of constructing a text is a “before and after” comparison (For skin impurities, especially for young skin ... 79%. Speeds up the healing of the spots). First signs of aging ... Lines are visually reduced for each body.
In the female linguistic consciousness, a woman is presented, first of all, as a fair sex, having corresponding stereotypical features.
The representation of female gender stereotypes in the English-language advertising discourse corresponds to the addressee’s linguistic consciousness and reflects the demands made on women in modern society by men and the aspirations of women themselves.