Когнитивный подход к тексту в обучении иностранному языку


Филологические науки

В статье исследуются отношения между концептуальными и языковыми картинами мира, так как это представляется очень важным для лингвистики текста в целом и интерпретации литературного текста в частности.

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The study of the human factor in language with regards to text production and text perception puts forward the task of considering relationships between conceptual and language world pictures. The notions of conceptual and language world picture appear to be very important for text linguistics in general, and interpretation of a literary text in particular. Conceptual world picture is understood as a global image of the world and its essential features reflected in individual’s mind as a result of his spiritual activity. Language world picture is an explicated with the help of various language means, systematically organized and socially important model of the conceptual world picture. It is a means of transferring information about the world, people, and relations.

It should be noted that all language means are involved in the world picture representation. However, the role of some verbal expressions denoting key notions needs to be emphasized. With regard to the conceptual world picture, it is very important whether the text is oriented on the material objects or spiritual life world, the latter, in this sense, presents much more interest. Fictional texts, as is known, with their aesthetic, emotional and evaluative functions aim to create an imaginary world reflecting the spiritual human life. In this respect the verbal expressions nominating the objects of spiritual world, ideal entities assume a priority role. According to A. A. Uphimtseva, in every language there is a special group of words called “nominal”. Nominal words do not denote any psychological, biological or any other substantial entity; they are conditioned by social reality, world outlook, the norms of human ethics and aesthetics.

Lexicon plays an important role in realization of the pragmatic intention in question. The story by E. Poe ”The manuscript found in the bottle” is a convincing evidence to it. The plot of the story is a fantastic narrative about the sea storm and shipwreck, the appearance of an enormous vessel and removal to the other world. The conceptual information inferred from the verbal structure of the text can be described as a psychological state of a man at the moment of disaster, the feelings of horror and exaltation, the fear of death and admiration for eternity. The pragmatic intention of this text is to exert an emotional impact on the reader and represent an individual author’s conceptual world picture. This story, as well as all others by E. Poe, reflects the author’s world picture — tragedy, sufferings, fatality of human life. This pragmatic intention defines all the parameters of the text and the choice of words.

Let’s turn to the analysis of the text. The first thing to attract attention here is a high concentration of abstract nouns denoting non -material objects, and belonging to the nominal group of words. The use of these lexemes creates a particular nominative space of the text expressing the concepts of inner spiritual world (sensation, admiration, hopelessness, futurity, amazements).

Another group of words is presented by adjectives and adverbs (awful, terrific, frightful, terrible, bitterly, hopeless, gloomily, overwhelmed, thrilling, peevish, etc). Adjectives and adverbs in their majority refer to the emotive and evaluative lexicon, the role of which in representing conceptual world picture cannot be overestimated. Semantic analysis of the lexicon, employed in this text, made it possible to distinguish the following groups:

  1. Description of nature: wilderness, fiery, thundering, weather beaten, roaring;
  2. Inner psychological state: confusion, madness, uneasiness, eagerness, sublimity;
  3. Feelings and emotions: admiration, amazement, sensation, peevishness, gloomy, hopeless, etc.

The last group appeared to be most numerous. Here the words expressing the feeling of horror, fear and anxiety prevail (awful, terrible, fearful, horrible, and frightful).

No less significant here are the word-building links based on the mechanisms of analogy and correlation. Root repetition forms the correlative chains which mark conceptually important notions, and put forward the key words of the text: terror — terrible — terribly; horror — horrible, hope — hopeless, death — dead, mad — madness — madly; unnatural — supernatural, eternity — eternal, curious — overcurious. These words stress and emotionally emphasize the atmosphere of horror, ominous and mystic situation depicted in the text. The same function is fulfilled by the repetition of negative affixes characterized by a high stylistic potential: inevitable, irresistible, unfathomable, unabated, ungovernable, unwilling, unfit, unnatural, thoughtless, ineffable, indefinite, inadequate, incomprehensible, ineffective, irrepressible.

Due to such an abundance of derivatives charged with emotive meanings, the emotional tension of the text reaches its highest point. Besides, the words linked by the homogeneity of their word-building meaning are perceived here not as separate units, but as the components of larger groupings, such as lexico-semantic groups and lexico-semantic fields. And this is a very important factor because the conceptual world picture is created not on the basis of single words, but as a result of their cognitive categorization verbally expressed in the text.

So, the cognitive approach to the text reveals its complicated cognitive structure, and shows that the processes of text production and perception are based on the cognitive principles. And that accounts for the necessity of applying the principles and methods of cognitive linguistics to text linguistics.

Список литературы

  1. Ashurova D.U. Text Linguistics.- Tashkent: Таfakkur qanoti, 2012
  2. https://www2.bc.edu/~richarad/lcb/fea/tsur/cogpoetics.html‘Aspects of Cognitive Poetics’, by Reuven Tsur (2003)