Принципы развития письменной речи

№112-1,

педагогические науки

Одним из основных принципов обучения иностранным языкам является принцип интеграции и сегрегации, суть которого заключается в том, что при обучении любому типу речи или аспекту языка нам необходим любой тип речевой деятельности на уроке иностранного языка.

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The main goal of teaching a foreign language at school today is the formation and development of foreign language communicative competence which has the following types such as:

  1. Speech competency.
  2. Language competence.
  3. Sociocultural competence.
  4. Educational and cognitive competence.

At the present stage, taking into account favorable conditions for the study of foreign languages, advanced requirements are put forward to all types of speech activity equally. It is necessary to bring students to the level of an independent or competent user of a foreign language. Teachers' philosophy is formed by basic methodological categories, such as: goals, principles, content, methods and teaching aids. Currently, the specific features of a particular educational institution are taken into account and it is allowed to carry out the learning process using foreign teaching materials. What is meant by the level of knowledge of a foreign language, and is there a real opportunity to measure it?

Today, thanks to the efforts of the European Council, a unified system of assessing knowledge in the field of foreign languages in Europe has developed, and although for Uzbekistan the problem of national standards has not yet been completely resolved, we can rely on the draft Standards, as well as the experience and practice of our European colleagues. Today, in all schools, targeted training of students for passing the exam, and in some of the international exams becomes not so much the ultimate goal of education (obtaining certificates) as an objective indicator of progress in the language. We do not at all consider exam results to be the only objective and acceptable forms of control. However, if the purpose of training changes, then the requirements for training and control must inevitably change. In the process of preparing for exams, students acquire and develop a number of important knowledge, skills and abilities:

  • concentrate and complete tasks at the required pace and volume, clearly following the instructions;
  • determine the strategy for completing tasks for all types of speech activity, which to a large extent contributes to success;
  • increase vocabulary and broaden horizons in many areas of knowledge;
  • strive for self-education and self-improvement;
  • use the skills acquired in the study of the English language in other areas of knowledge, which, of course, supports sustainable motivation for learning.

The purpose of teaching written language is "the formation of students' written communicative competence, which includes the possession of written characters, the content and form of a written work of speech" [1].

Tasks that need to be achieved is the goal that includes “the formation of the necessary graphic automatisms, verbal-mental skills and the ability to formulate thought in accordance with written styles, expanding knowledge and horizons, forming authentic ideas about the subject content, speech style and graphic form of written text " [3].

When teaching a foreign language, three main types of written speech activity are practiced [2]:

1. Controlled writing:

  • writing letters;
  • spelling of words;
  • preparation of sentences (or rewriting, copying texts).

2. Directed or Guided writing.

Written work is carried out in accordance with a specific task.

3. Free writing.

I would like to give a few examples of tasks and exercises that we perform with students, working on all three types of writing.

Controlled Writing.

  1. A game of “Bingo!” For letters, prepositions, forms of verbs.
  2. Composing words from given letters.
  3. Decryption of words by a given cipher.
  4. The arrangement of words in order.
  5. The location of the pieces of text in accordance with the pictures (or vice versa).

Free Writings

Starting to work on this type of writing, you should immediately explain to students what writing styles are, and write even the shortest texts in certain formats.

  1. You can make a story from a picture in the newspaper article, magazine article, story, play.
  2. Letters (official, semi-official, unofficial).

At the same stage, students can be taught to write letters and greeting cards, starting with wildcard exercises and creating parallel texts. All sorts of dialogue magazines can be one of the ways to teach written language, allowing students to communicate with each other in writing, discussing topics of interest to them. The advantage of such journals over other types of written work is obvious. They give students the opportunity to write for a true audience. In addition, students do not write in journals for evaluation, which allows them to express their own thoughts more freely, not limited to using familiar structures.

Composition

The composition should have a beginning, middle and final part. Any work should have an idea that needs to be presented, logically developed and completed. The composition should begin with a plan. Like a cook who bakes a cake according to a specific recipe, the one who writes the composition must follow the laws of logic and aesthetic requirements. The plan should include the main components of the work. It is not so difficult to draw up a plan if you know what you want to say and clarify the content with questions to the subject of the essay. These questions should include the following words: How, Why, What, Where, When, Who. The wording of questions with these words will make up an essay plan.

The answers to these questions of the plan (one paragraph per question) will make up a coherent presentation of the theme of the essay. The ideas of the narrative and the sentences themselves expressing ideas must be a coherent sequence, i.e. you need to know and be able to use connecting words (linking words: and, but, then, usually, moreover) and phrases (linking phrases: at first, later on, just then, at the finish, in addition). Having written an essay, it is necessary to check it and draw it up accordingly.

It must be remembered that written teaching should be combined with other types of speech activity — listening (dictations, writing, filling in gaps and tables), reading (post-text exercises, answering questions, completing a story, adding details), speaking (interviews followed by writing information, pair or group discussion with a record of the arguments of both parties).

The effective combination of all types of speech activity is facilitated by the use of video fragments in the lessons. Subsequent written assignments can range from compiling individual lines and dubbing scenes to writing scripts and even critical articles. To achieve a level of communicative competence in writing, students must learn to write using any of the suggested styles.

To use the Cambridge Exam assignment terms, students should be able to write Personal Discursive, Descriptive and Narrative Compositions and Letters of the personal and informal type.

Essays

Huge value (as in any other field of knowledge) should be given to training exercises. The more practice, the better the skill. Roughly speaking, a writer is a "professional in the use of words." Before writing, the student should be inspired to consider what can be written about the subject.

Scheduling the essay mobilizes this thought process. “Mental discipline” and the ability to make plans help students develop a reasonable attitude not only to specific work, but also to everyday life situations, which is important, because in the end our task is not only to develop certain skills in children, but we need to prepare them to life. Thus, the ability to write essays is not only art, but also science, and the training in writing essays is the development of not only creative abilities, but also a scientific worldview. So, writing essays is art and technology. To teach art is of course very difficult, but it is possible and necessary to teach certain technical methods. We note in conclusion that the ability to write in a foreign language increases the level of students' communicative competence, gives them the opportunity to participate in exchange programs and international conferences, and pass exams of an international standard.

Список литературы

  1. Бондарева В.В. Обучение письму на иностранном языке: назревшая необходимость. ‒ ELT: Dinternal, 1999.
  2. Соловова Е.Н. Обучение письму. ‒ ELT: Dinternal, 2000.
  3. O’Sullivan M. Composition/ The Art and the Technique. ‒ Cambridge, 1988.