Obviously that, literary translation is one from not the easiest areas in the field of linguistics, which requires special knowledge, art and creative activities. The writer creates books, the Translator in this case is the author writing the same book, only in another language, creating the same book for the reader from the very beginning, and for this it is necessary to have not only translation knowledge, but also writing skills. Based on this, translating text, the translator must save ideas, words, thoughts and the style of the author, — must convey the national the atmosphere (spirituality) and flavor of the people described by the author — must preserve the structure and the shape of the original. Everyone knows that the English language is a mediator between many cultures, well-translated novels, epics, stories, poems and even fairy tales have always brought great pleasure to the reader. However, the problem is that there are good reasons for revising and developing the problems of direct translation and translation of indirect in fiction. Gafur Gulyam is known for his talented translations into Uzbek language of works by Pushkin, Lermontov, Griboyedov, Beaumarchais and others. Gafur Gulyam dedicated many works to children. It's about his story "Mischievous". The hero himself talks about his tragic life. Various proverbs and sayings are heard in his speech, metaphors and comparisons. Most of them are painted humor and satire. The writer focuses on portraying the experiences and feelings of the mischievous person, on his inner state of mind. But, the translation of this story into different languages from the point of view of linguists goes beyond the framework. Direct translation from Uzbek into German people can find a lot in common. Also, from the point of view of readers, the German and English versions of the story can be considered an adequate translation Adequate translation is translation corresponding to the original and, as V.N. Komissarov says, “in loose use,“ adequate translation "is a" good "translation that meets the expectations and hopes of communicators or persons assessing the quality of translation" [1, p. 152]. Direct translation is the translation that is obtained as a result of working directly with the original text. In indirect translation, the main source of information for a translator who is not a native speaker of Russian is Russian, which is original language. Since ancient times, people have been interested in studying the cultures, spirituality, customs and traditions of other peoples. Translation as literary creation it has existed for many millennia, but its systematic study as a scientific subject began relatively recently.
Now about the most important thing, as we know, theorists single out one of the main problems of translating literary translation as the translation of phraseological units:
- translation of free phrases and
- translation of stable phrases (phraseological units)
Will we be able to understand the main problems and possible ways to solve them, which are offered to us by such well-known theorists and translation practitioners, like L.S. Barkhudarov, V.N. Komissarov, Yu. Naida or others.
When two or more independent words are combined grammatically and semantically, that is, through a dominant subordinate relation, a phrase is formed. Phrases can be free and stable. The meaning of free phrases depends on the dominant relationships that govern the interaction between the components. In most cases free phrases in direct translation of words retain their meanings, so they can be translated easily. When translating such phrases, it is important know the translation of their constituent components and the synonyms of those words. In stable phrases, words are freely interconnected: they mean a concept, they are used already ready-made, as they are fixed in the language as our memory keeps them. Stable phrases or phraseological units are complex in composition. For example, the pair combination "im Grossen und Ganzen" [4:82] in the German translation of the book was used in the sense of "in general, in the main" and has a firmly fixed structural feature. Paired combinations of words are called phraseological units with a holistic meaning resulting from semantic transformation of compositional combinations, including two homogeneous words (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs) and connected using the union und, less often oder or weder… noch. In the story "Der Schelm" by Gafur Gulam one can find such paired words like:
Muhe und Not,
Kreuz und quer,
Hin und her,
Ab und zu
Im Großen und ganzen [3:75]
Furthermore, translation of such paired combinations is found in all styles of speech. There are several important signs of such phraseological units: to create a pair, both components are one part of speech most often they are adjectives and nouns components are connected using conjunction und, oder, weder.. . noch.
Let's analyze some combination by these criteria:
Hin und wieder [3:71] — this combination can be replaced a synonym consisting of one word manchmal, nach und nach can also be replaced with the synonym allmählich, hin und wieder can be used as synonyms von Zeit zu Zeit and manchmal, Hin und her can be replaced by the paired combination auf und ab. The replacement of such synonyms as paired combinations in German corresponds to the original at all levels, namely, at the lexical, grammatical and semantic level. [4:95]
By the way of conclusion, the translation of stable phrases and free phrases has an important role in translation. Replacement of synonyms depends on the choice of the translator's word. A small article on the language problems of direct and indirect translation is just a drop in the ocean. We linguists and translators must work hard over this problem and then we can, will expand the circle of domestic and foreign readers.