Currently, advertising discourse is one of the most developing types of discourses. A large number of articles, dissertations, and books have been devoted to the study of advertising discourse and text, but the main issues remain debatable. There is no consensus among researchers about the status of the advertising language, its functions and functional features. Advertising discourse is a discourse used to influence individuals based on the use of available media, which helps to convey this discourse to a particular category or to a large number of people. It is considered a type of advertisement. The publicity discourse is also defined as the declaration of a set of information that contributes to the description of a commodity in order to connect it to as many individuals as possible in the commercial market. Another definition of an advertising discourse is the use of spoken or written words, and a method of addressing, in order to communicate with the public and introduce it to the idea of what may have been unknown in the past [1, p. 229].
According to S.G. Terminasova, "advertising is a special register of the sphere of business activity, it is allowed to be bright, extraordinary; in advertising, you can use any methods: language, visual as long as it fulfills its functions, as long as it works" [2, p. 78]. Studies of this form of mass communication are conducted in different directions. It is possible to distinguish two main concepts of advertising: cultural (historical and cultural) and marketing. In researches from the standpoint of cultural studies, advertising is defined as "an offshoot of mass communication, in the course of which informative-figurative, expressive-suggestive works are created and distributed, addressed to groups of people in order to encourage them to make the right choice and act for the advertiser". Advertising is considered as a poly-code structure that combines verbal (headline, slogan, main advertising text, echo phrase) and iconic (visual) means that are aimed at implementing the main goal to motivate the recipient to purchase a product or service. An important link in this case is not only the preparation of the advertising text, but also its discursive updating. Advertising can be classified in terms of function: brand-building and directional. Brand-building advertising is synonymous with product advertising and is commonly seen in traditional mass media, including TV, radio, magazines, and newspapers, where as directional advertising is designed to reach a mass audience by using a tactic of intrusion aimed at helping consumers locate suppliers of desired products and services, and includes advertising in yellow pages, a newspaper classified section, movie listings, and industry guides. Advertising is paid, non-personalized communication carried out by an identified sponsor and using the media to persuade (something) or influence (somehow) the audience.
For the language of advertising, it is important to distinguish between oral and written discourses, the structure of which has its own differences. Oral advertising discourse allows for a greater lexical and grammatical variation, while prosody (the system of pronunciation of percussive and non-percussive, long and short syllables in speech) plays a significant role. Written advertising discourse has its own construction features. Punctuation plays an important role in this process. The use of punctuation in written speech, as well as prosody in spoken speech, largely determines its rhythm, its perception by the audience. The main structural elements of advertising texts are the title, main text, and motto; subtitle, inserts and frames, seals, logos, and autographs (signatures) are also used. Title — draws attention to the text, interests the buyer. Therefore, it must be effective in impact and clear in meaning. Header is divided into several types: headers that report useful properties; provoking; informative; interrogative and containing a command. A subtitle — is a visual bridge between the title and the main text. The main text fulfills the promises of the title. The main text of an advertising message can be narrative, pictorial, or gimmicky (original); it can be written in the form of a monologue or dialogue. The final phrase-slogan should encourage the buyer to take action ("buy today", "begin travel", "call now" etc.). This is the most powerful form of a trade offer. When coming up with a slogan, you should strive to ensure that it corresponds to the General advertising theme, is short, formulated by original wordplay and contains, if possible, the name of the company. However, the most effective advertising texts are based on much more complex than it sometimes seems. In this case, the creators of texts avoid direct description of the subject of advertising, its properties, characteristics and advantages.