Общие лингвистические особенности рекламного дискурса

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В данной статье речь идет об изучении рекламы, представленной в общей лингвистической науке, с учетом специфики рекламного дискурса в английском языке. Цель рекламы состоит в том, чтобы продавать товары и возбудить у потребителя тягу к реальным продуктам и достичь этого, поэтому язык рекламы должен быть хорошо разработан, чтобы привлечь внимание. В дополнение к этому рекламодатели используют экстралингвистические факторы, такие как контекст ситуации и иллюстрации, которые играют важную роль в определении общей текстуры рекламы и ее эффективности.

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Текст научной работы

Advertising is a clear example of impactful text. It has all the typical features for this type and accurately performs the prescribed functions. As a rule, the content of advertising corresponds to the so-called formula AIDCA (attention — attention, interest — interest, desire — desire, confidence — confidence, action — action). That is: advertising should attract attention, retain interest, arouse desire, build confidence and demand action, namely purchase.

Advertising, according to Wikipedia, is a form of communication aimed at persuading the audience (viewers, readers or listeners) purchase or take certain actions regarding products, ideas or services. It includes the name of the product or service and what this product or service can benefit the consumer to convince target audience to purchase or use that particular brand. These posts are usually paid for by sponsors and are viewed through various media.

The function of advertising highlight the basic advertising effectiveness thatthe role and influence of the object and social environment by advertising contentthey spread. The core of studying the function of advertisement is actually studyingwhat goal advertisement can achieve. First, advertising plays a role in promoting social and economic development and promoting the progress of material civilization. Along with the development of human economic activities, advertising has generated and constantly updated.

In modern society, the level of advertising development is one of theimportant marks to measure the development level of a country or region economy.Second, advertising plays a role in enhancing the enterprises’ competitive power and raising enterprises’ economic benefits. Western advertising has a maxim, «to sell products without advertising, as if to make eyes at a man or woman in the night.» In the process of production and operation, the core and purpose of enterprises is the economic benefit for itself. The enterprise competition is the market competition; the power of enterprise can be transferred according to market share. The important role of advertising can be expressed in the following aspects:

  1. Advertising is an important source of the enterprise transmitting and receiving;
  2. Market information;
  3. Advertising is one of the important methods of sales promotion;
  4. Advertising is to promote the enterprise competition and improve the enterprise internal management;
  5. Advertising is one of the crucial approaches to improve the enterprise brand;
  6. Popularity;
  7. Advertising can reduce business cost.

Third, advertising plays a role in guiding consumption trend. Advertising hasa guided effect on consumers’ consumption idea, consumer psychology and consumer behavior.

  1. Advertising is one of the important sources to consumers to get commodity;
  2. Information;
  3. Advertising can induce consumption attitude and consumption behavior;
  4. Advertising is an important component of consumers’ decision-making.

At last, advertising also plays a role in improving social civilization progress.

  1. Advertising can beautify social environment;
  2. Advertising can richen people’s cultural life;
  3. Advertising can promote social spiritual civilization progress.

Advertising language has been the main interest of many linguists for a long time. The language used in advertising has a main goal to attract the potential customer. A good advertising slogan can make a persuasive atmosphere of the advertisement. Generally, people get more attracted to the visual aspect of the advertising than the textual aspect. All these of researches show some universal linguistic features of advertisements across languages:

  • orthographic level: capitalization; deviations in spelling;
  • phonological level: repetition, rhyme, rhythm, alliteration;
  • lexical level: trigger words, slogans, catch phrases;
  • grammatical level: imperatives, superlatives, structural simplicity, ellipsis;
  • semantic level: metaphors, word plays, metonymy, ambiguity;
  • pragmatic level: speech acts of persuasion and etc;
  • sociolinguistic level: simple spoken language, humor, codeswitching.

Advertising helps to attract the attention of the audience and persuades them to buy the advertised product.

Creating an advertising text is impossible without the appropriate syntactic organization, which is implemented when creating a certain syntactic unity that unites separate super phrasal units and phrases. Without a close syntactic connection, it is impossible to update advertising information, and, consequently, the successful promotion of an advertising idea. Exclamations at the beginning of the text, question-answer forms, rhetorical questions — all these linguistic means are used to attract the attention of the audience.

As a result of a comparative analysis of the advertising text and the traditional one, the researchers came to the conclusion that the text in question is a text of a non-traditional nature, which is primarily determined by the features of its syntactic links. Traditionally, the following structural and syntactic characteristics are distinguished in the text:

  • the text consists of one or more sentences;
  • the use of uppercase or lowercase letters is traditional;
  • one sentence is typed in one font;
  • sentences and words are separated by equal spaces;
  • Lines are aligned to the left;
  • all lines are completely filled (except for the first and final lines).

Therefore, the requirements for the graphic design of the text, the rules punctuation, hyphenation rules, capitalization and lowercase letters at the beginning and in the middle of a sentence are used to create and set traditional type of the text.

According to many linguists, in particular, V.I. Konkova, advertising the text differs from the traditional text and is a non-traditional text, that is, unlike the traditional text, it embodies text of a qualitatively different type, characterized by a set of specific signs:

  • the components of the text can be not only units, but also called, naming type (words and phrases);
  • separate units, being not connected in the structure of the sentence, can be contained independently in the entire sentence or in combination with others;
  • filling in the lines — incomplete;
  • neighboring sentences can be expressed in different fonts, this allows you to establish additional semantic relationships between them;
  • arbitrary spaces between sentences and words;
  • the ability to use a font that has no differences between lowercase and uppercase letters;
  • rows can be aligned to the left, and on the right and even in the center;
  • set using two or more fonts contributes to breaking the sentence into parts.

Such a construction of the text is directly related to the semantic construction of the advertising message, that is, the main semantic elements of the advertising text are applied with a distinction. Almost every ad text consists of four components: title, subtitle, main text, advertising slogan (slogan).

The title serves to draw the attention of buyers to the text. This is the main component of advertising, which is the most effective message to a potential buyer. Hence the title should be simple in meaning, but at the same time have a strong impact.

The subtitle is a kind of bridge from the title to the main advertising text. If the title caught the buyer's attention, the subheading additionally maintains his interest, thereby pushing him to make a purchase. The next role is already behind the main text that undertakes to fulfill the promises indicated in the heading.

In the structure of the text, it is customary to distinguish three main parts: introduction, main body, conclusion. The intro helps buyers get into the topic advertising message if he is not familiar with this problem. The main part contains the very essence of the commercial offer. She represents product in a favorable light, indicates its main advantages and benefits. As you know, the reader of the text of an advertisement is interested not so much in goods, how much in the benefits that he can derive for himself. Thus, the main task is to prove to the consumer with examples that the proposed product is necessary for him. Well, the conclusion is the result all of the above.

An advertising slogan is the final phrase of the advertising text. Advertising slogan (a motto of the brand) — a short memorable phrase that conveys bright and figurative form the main idea of the advertising campaign. It is the slogan helps the company stand out from its competitors. Successful slogan contributes to maintaining the brand of the campaign and reflects its main specifics. A good advertising slogan should have the following features: brevity, contrast, phonetic and rhythmic repetition, and the effect of hidden dialogue. It is important to note exactly what The slogan is the most important component of corporate identity.

Creating a slogan is a rather complicated process that requires a lot of skill, talent, creativity, experience and intuition. However, there is still basic principles that help build a successful slogan. Such principles can be attributed to the informational, content side of the slogan and rhetoric — a way of presenting information.

Thus, the advertising slogan can be attributed to an independent genre variety of the advertising text, as it is the most striking and expressive component of the advertising text. For the best acquaintance with the advertising slogan, it is necessary to consider it structurally stylistic and semantic components and highlight the most significant means of expression.

There is no doubt that advertising exists within the framework of modern society and is a specific form of communication. Consequently, advertising is an integral part of modern culture, which dictates the need to study the linguocultural features of the advertising text.

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Список литературы

  1. Vestergaard, T., & Shroder, K (1985). The language of advertising. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  2. Wells Burnett and Moriarty (1998) “Advertising materials”
  3. Comanor, W. S. (1999). “Advertising and Market Power” Cambridge: Mass Harvard University
  4. Sandage et al (1999). “Advertising Theory and Practice”. George Town.
  5. Rosenthal D.E., Kokhtev N.N. The language of advertising texts. — Moscow
  6. Коньков В.И. Русская речь в средствах массовой информации: Речевые системы и речевые структуры / Под ред. В.И.Конькова, А.Н.Потсар.


Усмонова, Х.А. Общие лингвистические особенности рекламного дискурса / Х.А. Усмонова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 132. — С. 97-98. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/19181 (дата обращения: 09.08.2022).