The principle of economy can be otherwise defined as the principle of utility, if we understand by economy any benefit arising from the use of short forms. If the principle of utility is unidirectional works only for the benefit of the speaker, its use can lead to a «pragmatic anomaly» when the addressee's lexicon does not contain the abbreviations used by the addressee. As a result of this, selecting and utilizing the appropriate abbreviation, the language user notices not merely his semantic competence, which responds to for the correlation of the sign to the world, but also for pragmatic competence, or, in other words, awareness of the state of affairs, orientation in the value of the picture of the addressee, finally, his social and role status. Take profession or occupation, level of education as an example. With this process, the ways of expressing the intention are compressed and information redundant elements are eliminated. In terms of abbreviation, language economy appears as a compression of means of expression and a general perception of the new language units, a rise in the communicative function оf the lаnguage. A shortened unit is a meаns of saving time, cоncentration of information which the operation of the principle of language economy on the basis of phrases expressing a single idea should be recоgnized as one of the main reasons for the emergence of abbreviations in any language. However, the main cause is only at the origins of abbreviation as a way of word formation. With the abbreviated way of forming new words, two connected points are taken into account that operate in the language:
- In complex abbreviated words, the desire of a native speaker for brevity, for saving speech efforts is clearly manifested;
- The language strives for accuracy so that the word is quickly perceived by the interlocutor.
At the same time, these trends are аimed at achieving a single result and lead to a single goal — the creation of a word-formation mechanism of abbreviation. It is also appropriate to note that the reasons for the emergence and wide distribution of written abbreviations were interpreted from the standpoint of economy long before lexical abbreviations attracted the attention of philologists. Such an explanation for abbreviations is given by Latin and Greek scholars, where the principle of economy is justified, firstly, by the desire to avoid unnecessary labor costs when reproducing frequently repeated words and phrases; secondly, by the need for compression to save space and materials for writing. There is one more important circumstance: even in relation to written, graphic, abbreviations of antiquity of the Middle Ages, the principle of economy in the above interpretation is not comprehensive. This interesting feature makes it possible to give a broader and at the same time differentiated interpretation of the essence of graphic abbreviations and their varieties, without reducing the essence of аbbreviation only to the principle of economy.
Thousands of abbreviated lexical units are used in various languages. The number of abbreviations dictionaries is increasing every year. In some cases, they include less common types of abbreviations that occur in the language in single examples, in others, the language implements a huge number of abbreviated units, reaching several tens and even hundreds of thousands. Countries of the world abbreviations are used in diplomacy, technical and military literature, in the preparation of business and commercial documents, the names of various organizations, educational institutions; brands of cars, aircraft, radar installations and other devices; in fiction and in press. In various the process of the emergence of abbreviated lexical units as a phenomenon of the language system is in a state of dynamic development, therefore it is of great importance for language users. A wide variety of abbreviations prevails in the English language, and at this stage this is a distinctive feature of its functioning. As for abbreviation, it raises many problems from the point of view of the theory of word formation. A number of researchers do not contemplate shortening as one of the ways of forming words. Most researchers consider abbreviation to be a special way of word formation, but at the same time it cannot do without numerous reservations. According to the dictionary definition, "an abbreviated unit is a noun composed of truncated words included in the original word, or of truncated constituents of the original compound word". Shortening is a phenomenon which is traditionally correlated with the field of language economy. "The most striking manifestation of the operation of the principle of economy in language communication is the economizing time by saving segment funds". «In the system of language, the abbreviated unit performs a compressive function, serves to create a shorter nomination than a correlative phrase». On the whole, abbreviation is an effective way of word formation, the features of which reflect, among other things, the modern tendencies of globalization. The specificity of this method of word formation is determined by the components of the abbreviation, which exist in a special relationship with each other. The popularity of this vocative way is also connected with the trend towards universalization that is relevant for modern society, which also manifests itself at the level of unification of linguistic means of expressing meaning. At the same time, as the researchers note, «abbreviations are created with the reduction of the material units of the generating complex and condensation, consolidation, but not reduction of its semantics.