A search for the new ways of preventing criminal behavior and re-socialization of convicts is an important scientific problem.
Objective: analysis of convicts’ cerebral (neuro-psychiatric) pathology in order to optimize their resocialization, improve social adaptation, quality of life and achieve the goals of criminal punishment for the prevention of criminal behavior.
Material and methods. 250 men aged between 35 and 50 years were examined. The first survey sample consisted of convicted (n = 50). The second (control) survey sample included those (n = 200) who had no previous convictions (age – 42.4 +/- 2.8 years).
Clinical examination (research), as well as electroencephalography, electrocardiography, galvanic skin reflex, psychological research (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Spilberger test (STAI)), magnetic resonance imaging, compressive spectral EEG analysis, EEG toposelective mapping, ultrasonic Doppler examination of cerebral arteries and other brain studies was conducted.
Results and discussion. Convicted persons complained of moderate (58%) or severe (32%) irritability, irascibility (64%), emotional instability (32%), psychoemotional tension (76%). These symptoms temporarily reduced after aggression, fighting, beating anybody.
Sometimes crimes were committed under the influence of these disorders. These disorders have been present for many years. In prison they intensified.
82% of convicted previously had brain injuries of various severity. Brain injuries produce irreversible morphological changes in the brain. This causes disruption of brain functioning.
28% persons from the second (control) group previously had a brain injury.
74% of the prisoners regularly drank alcohol, used drugs periodically. Every third committed crime in a state of intoxication. A state of intoxication intensified cerebral disorders.
All surveyed from the second group denied drug usage, alcohol abuse.
Neurological symptoms of brain lesions were detected among convicted. Microfocal neurological symptoms (16%) were detected, as well as pathological reflexes of hands.
In the second survey sample these symptoms occur in 9% and 6% of cases correspondingly.
Neurological symptoms are more common among convicted. The difference between groups is statistically significant.
Most criminals had thought disorders in the form of poor prediction of the consequences of their actions. These disorders contributed to criminal behavior.
Cerebral pathology made it difficult to find a socially acceptable solution to the situation.
Aggressive reactions were typical of 24% of the convicts. Aggression is a standard, primitive response to a difficult situation. Anger, aggression arose due to insignificant reasons. They were losing self-control in the state of aggression.
They defended only their own interests. They demonstrated indifference to the rights of others.
Criminals often acted without considering the consequences of their actions.
Everyone convicted knows about two crimes that went unpunished. They can not predict unfavorable outcome for themselves. They are able to predict only a good result. Cerebral pathology diminishes the ability of predicting actions.
Persons from the second group had an ability to predict the consequences of their actions. They predicted the possibility of criminal penalty. They were afraid of criminal penalty.
Magnetic resonance imaging of persons from the first and the second groups of surveyed do not differ significantly. 32% of convicted had volume reduction the orbitofrontal region of cortex.
Brain bioelectrical activity disorders were detected in 56% of convicted.
These data show that criminals have functional and structural cerebral disorders. These cerebral disorders can have an impact on criminal behavior.
86% of the patients from the second (control) group have EEG within normal limits.
Indicators of compressive spectral EEG analysis, EEG toposelective mapping, ultrasonic Doppler examination of cerebral arteries of persons from the first and the second groups have no differences.
Conducted research shows that cerebral pathology accompanies criminal behavior.
According to our data, 86% of convicts suffer from personality disorder.
In the second (control) group personality disorder was observed in 15.5% of cases.
Personality disorder was detected 5.5 times more often among convicted than among the law-abiding people.
Antisocial personality disorder is most common among the convicts.
Criminal behavior has a pathological basis. Cerebral disorders may lead to criminal behavior. These cerebral disorders may affect the correction of convicts.
Cerebral disorders hinder perceiving of universal values, rules of society.
Mental activity is a reflection of the objective reality in the human brain. Cerebral pathology causes disorders in an adequate reflection of the reality. Cerebral pathology impedes human adaptation to the environmental conditions. This is accompanied by low social adaptation level and criminal behavior.
The implementation of criminal intent often occurs at the moment of its emergence.
Cerebral pathology hinders the achievement of the objectives of criminal punishment in terms of prevention of criminal behavior. Cerebral pathology prevents the redemption of a convict.
Achieving the goals of punishment is impossible without treatment of cerebral disorders.
Treatment of a convicted person can be compulsory, if he is not aware of his mental problems. Mental disorders connected with criminal behavior should be cured for the benefit of a patient and society.
Psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of cerebral disorders help a convicted person to achieve correction of behavior.
Compulsory treatment ensures the right of a convicted person to become healthy, as well as improving the quality of life, resocialization, prevention of new crimes