Управление инновационной деятельностью в школе


педагогические науки

В статье рассматривается проблема управления инновационной деятельностью в школе. Предлагаются пути решения проблем, связанных с внедрением инновационной деятельности.

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Due to desire of teachers to improve the educational process in secondary school the innovation activity acquires great importance. Innovation activity is understood as the introduction of innovations passing the difficult path from idea to tradition and requiring a particular relationship, special management support. However, we do not consider innovation as a self-goal, and we regard it as a landmark in circumstances where situations of professional activity follow in quick succession; it is the way of professional improvement and, ultimately, the source of creation of conditions for self-development. The most effective innovation activity is carried out in the form of scientific and methodological activities. And here support is extremely important, which is assisted by higher education professionals to schools development in the form of advice and of this activity. The order to ensure this type of activity by scientific management is generated by the contradiction between the impossibility of adapting results of scientific research in public schools within its own resources and the necessity of introduction of innovative technologies of education that allow the school to develop.

It is known that the results of research works carried out in universities and research institutions of the education system can’t be directly used in schools, as they often lack of the methodological component that is necessary to adapt them to the different subject contents and the specific conditions of the educational institution. Experience shows that teachers help the schools to solve methodological problems carrying out cooperative activities of the university and the schools in the field of innovation taking on the role of scientific and methodological support of innovative processes. The main tasks of management of innovative processes are search, study and selection of the significant for the school applied scientific research, the formation of the needs of the school staff to use their results in teaching practice. These aspects appear as the content of one of the parts of interaction between the university and school. The second part is a joint creation of projects for adaptation and implementation of scientific developments into school practice and the actual implementation. It should be noted that the practice of innovation reveals a number of difficulties that supervisor relieves through the organization of scientific and methodological activity. Its primary purpose is to create conditions for teachers by means of educational and methodical activities in particular in the direction of improving the effectiveness of training classes. Thus, scientific and methodical activity acting as a form of innovation activity performs the function of ensuring the development of school teaching practice. The results of the research (A. I. Prigozhin, E. Rogers, etc.) confirm that in the management of innovative activity psychological aspect acts as a significant moment. It acquires special significance in the teaching staff because objects and subjects of the activity are the pupils and teachers. In psychological management activity analysis, we regard three parts as three stages. First, psychological adaptation of the school authority to innovation. Secondly, psychological preparation of the school teaching staff to accept innovations. Thirdly, to overcome the psychological challenges of innovation activity of the teachers.

In the first stage research manager defines the concept of school development, chooses the theoretical bases of the educational process development and organizational structure of innovative type. After coordination of the basic directions with the administration and removing the psychological barrier, it helps develop the project taking into account the state of the team – his readiness to innovative activity. In the team, three groups are formed in relation to innovation: supporters of innovations, consonants performers and opponents of any change.

Each category of teachers has a distinctive specificity of self-determination. Therefore, at the second stage in the process of forming the social order in the form individual and social important values, needs, values, procedures, motivation, goal setting, situation analysis, formulation of problems and tasks, etc. that are necessary for all as attributes of conscious-relation to the professional activity, many difficulties appear. And from the standpoint of the psychology of management the most effective form is to work in teams and small groups. After discussing all the difficulties the project innovation activity is compiled. It becomes the basis for the school development programme for the next few years. The program, in turn, opens the opportunity for each teacher to get involved in its implementation through participation in scientific and methodological activities. The main value of task-oriented scientific and methodological activities for school is that he borrows researcher position. He masters this position to introduce modern methods of developmental teaching. Entering this activity, the teacher comprehends the opportunity to transfer funds from the theoretical to the practical plan; he acquires the experience in analyzing and designing educational situations. In this way, he assimilates new means (theories, methods, technologies, etc.) of educational and methodical activity improving his skills on the one hand. On the other hand, the introduction of applied research in the field of pedagogy, psychology, and didactics is implemented. Involvement in scientific and methodological activity requires the teacher activates reflective abilities to correlate rules and implementations, needs and self-determination. Self-awareness mechanisms begins to form more active. They underlies in social and value and meaningful self-determination. Changes in the method of teachers work the supervisor fixes. He analyzes, evaluates and takes into account the result of proposals formation to adjust the development of school programs, the trajectory of self-development of each teacher, including the concept of social order and the school. Thus, the teacher acquires the ability to analyze and design new ways of his professional activity through self-education. Consequently, the dynamics of the content of scientific and methodological activities in the secondary school begins to determine the specific of management of this activity.

In summary the psychological aspect, we can build a logic sequence of the manager actions to direct innovative activities as a whole.

  1. Social order: the formation of need and motivational sphere of the participants, the removal of barriers of exclusion, the building of imagination to obtain a positive result from innovation.
  2. Resource support: the project construction to ensure the innovation, criteria definition for resources selection, adjustment and approval of the order.
  3. Programming: program development innovations, resources selection, performance organization.
  4. Control: standards and actual results comparison, establishment of reality and norms discrepancy.
  5. Correction: reflexive analysis of innovation processes, correction of reality and norms discrepancy.
  6. Order Problematisation: order defects identification, cognitive modeling of innovation, the construction of conceptual ideas, matching hypothesis (the idea) with the customer.
  7. Order Correction: the correction of the order for innovation, thinking back to the situation of understanding and receiving of the order. The above-mentioned procedures compile the core technology of innovation management.

Thus, by presiding scientific and methodological work, the scientific supervisor ensures the innovation process to be provided with all necessary resources and prevents the appearance of difficulties predicting the development of the situation.