Идиомы с компонентом «религия» в английском и русском языках

№83-1,

филологические науки

Данная работа повествует об идиоме как о лингвистическом явлении, вызывающей сложности в понимании и переводе на родной язык, даже зная значения компонентов их составляющих, так как значение целого идиоматического выражения не зависит от значения конкретных слов, входящих в состав выражения. Кроме того, идиома представлена как носитель исторической, культурной, философской информации об определенном народе.

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The English language is one of the most beautiful and idiomatic languages in the world. Besides this, it is a lingua franca for people with various L1. Understanding the lexicon of the English language demands more than knowing the denotative meaning of words. It requires its speakers to have connotative word comprehension and more understanding of figurative meaning. Idioms are connected with this last category. Idioms express historical and cultural information and broaden learners’ outlook. Idioms can be considered as language units that peculiar to the whole people, country, class, community but very seldom a concrete individual.

Before speaking about idioms themselves more closely it would be better if we touch upon phraseological units as idioms are a part of this language sphere. The vocabulary of a language is rich not only in words but also in phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in a language as ready-made units. The same as words phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. They are set in special dictionaries. American and British lexicographers call such units “idioms”. We can mention such dictionaries as: L. Smith “Words and idioms”, V. Collins “A book of English Idioms” etc. In these dictionaries we can find words, peculiar in their semantics (idiomatic) side by side with word-groups and sentences. In these dictionaries they are arranged, as a rule, into different semantic groups.

Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.

Phraseological units can be classified according to the degree of motivation of their meaning. This classification was suggested by acad. V.V. Vinogradov for Russian phraseological units. He pointed out three types of phraseological units:

  1. Fusions where the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highly idiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages, e.g. on the Shank’s mare — on foot, at sixes and sevens — in a mess etc;
  2. Unities where the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred (metaphorical or metonymical), e.g. to play the first fiddle (to be a leader in something), old salt — experienced sailor etc.
  3. Collocations where words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages, e.g. cash and carry — self- service shop, in a big way — in great degree [1].

Besides the above mentioned information in different sources we can find a variety of definitions to the word “idiom”. For example Macmillan English Dictionary writes “Idiom is an expression whose meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words” [2]. In addition, I would like to quote lexicologist A.M. Bushuy, who said “Idioms are those expressions we feel such idiots for not understanding them” [3]. And this situation often takes place in learners’ lives. Even for native speakers it is difficult to comprehend the meanings of idioms, which they see or hear for the first time.

Idioms were, are and will be an object of research for many scientists. Every time we (learners) find out a lot of interesting in the idiomatic sphere while reading authentic materials and without help of special idiomatic dictionaries we are not able to grasp those expressions’ meanings. Learners, having B2 or C1 levels in the CEFR, may come across some hindrance in comprehension. I think even native speakers are not insured against it.

Idioms contain cultural, historical, territorial and religious information in themselves. If we speak about English and Russian, the English and Russian languages belong to Indo-European family and the Russian and British peoples confess one religion Christianity, speak in two different languages having one and the same parent language because of these factors the English and Russian languages have a great number of equivalent idioms.

This can be observed in the following idioms with the semantic field “religion” and the origin of the idioms are closely connected with the Bible (Christianity).

English idiom

Meaning

Russian equivalent

To bear/ carry one’s cross.

To carry on with life despite going through much difficulty.

Нести свой крест.

An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

A person must be punished by the same bad thing he or she did to another person.

Око за око, зуб за зуб.

In the seventh heaven.

In a blissful state of mind or ideal situation.

седьмом небе.

Speak of the devil.

To talk about a person at the same time that the person walks into a room.

Легок на помине.

Manna from the heavens.

When something fortunate or profitable happens easily or unexpectedly.

Манна небесная.

Man proposes, God disposes.

One’s fate lies in the hands of God.

Мы предполагаем, Бог располагает.

Idioms are wide-spread language elements. They are used in informal and formal speeches, conversation and writing, and a part of standard speech in business, education and mass media. L2 learners are expected to comprehend a wide range of common idioms, which can be colourful and advantageous for applying them in every day communication or for scientific purposes.

Список литературы

  1. Vinogradov V. V. About the main types of phraseological units in the Russian language.- Moscow: The Academy of Sciences, 1947.- P. 21
  2. Macmillan English Dictionary.-London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2002.-P. 710
  3. Abdullaev Yu. N., Bushuy A. The language and the society. Tashkent: Uzbekistan, 2004.-P. 47