Типологическая категория числительного (на примере произведений «Золотой жук» Эдагара Аллана По и «Вий» Николай Васильевич Гоголь)

№86-2,

филологические науки

Статья основана на сопоставительном анализе двух языков (английского и русского) на примере произведений Эдгара Аллана По «Золотой жук» и Николая Васильевича Гоголя «Вий» в соответствии с уровнем межязыковых функций, межуровневых и межклассовых явлений, по категории числительных.

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The category of number is even more universal than the category of gender because from the type in memorial men, people have always distinguished between one thing and more than one. In the majority of languages, nouns are treated, looked upon as singular, plural or collective. The problem of categorization of language systems began with ancient Greek. Firstly, it’s appeared in Aristotle's works. He established high genders or categories and worked out the principle categorization which were the base of different categorization. Beshamen Worf said “language divides the world into categories”. This idea was attracted with its simplicity at the modern period it gains magical force. And at the language investigation main defined categories which was expressed in language.

The Comparative typology operates with the special meta-language to compare languages. The typological categories serve a meta-language and are common to the systems of compared languages, thus constituting the cross-language nature of the category. Typological categories are content-based and represented as special units of some common content or categorical meaning in the systems of compared languages which have correlated means of expression. The typological category is a unity of the typological form and typological meaning.

According to identifying number between two languages, English and Russian have a similar number: singular and plural. In English, the suffix – es(-s) is a grammatical morpheme of plural nouns (this suffix - en is not as widely used. It covers only a few nouns.)

For example:

  • Many years ago…
  • “…there are many similar titles in the Natural Histories.
  • children, oxen.

In Russian there are also several suffixes и, — ы, — а, — я.

  • Грамматики, риторы, философы и богословы, с тетрадями под мышкой, брели в класс.
  • Леса, луга, небо, долины — все, казалось, как будто спало с открытыми глазами.

There are two types of noun plurals in compare languages:

  1. neutral type of formation plurals,
  2. semantically conditioned type of formation plurals.

Neutral type of formation is not associated with additional changes the semantics of nouns in the formation of plurals.

For example:

girl — girls, friend — friends;
студент
студенты, садсады.

Semantically conditioned type of formation associated with semantic and stylistic change in the meaning of the words when they use the plural. This group includes nouns with a certain semantic, formal and functional characteristic.

1. proper names, names of cities and other geographical names, rivers, isolated objects (unique nouns):

For example:

  • he left New Orleans, the city of his forefathers, and took up his residence at Sullivan's Island, near Charleston, South Carolina.
  • Между тем распространились везде слухи, что дочь одного из богатейших сотников, которого хутор находился в пятидесяти верстах от Киева, возвратилась в один день с прогулки вся избитая, едва имевшая силы добресть до отцовского дома, находится при смерти и перед смертным часом изъявила желание, чтобы отходную по ней и молитвы в продолжение трех дней после смерти читал один из киевских семинаристов: Хома Брут.

2. uncountable nouns type:

Examples:

  • It is of a brilliant gold color — about the size of a large hickory-nut;
  • Saying this, he seated himself at a small table, on which were a pen and ink, but no paper.
  • Весь этот ученый народ, как семинария, так и бурса, которые питали какую-то наследственную неприязнь между собою…
  • проходивший мимо ремесленник долго еще, остановившись, нюхал, как гончая собака, воздух.

Neutral plurals are also related to nouns of unlabeled forms are singular and plural. These nouns are associated with lexical multiplicity, which is characterized by a lack of formal external signs. These singular and plurals nouns are the same, although they can be used with numbers and answer the question how many? This words like: sheep — sheep, cod — cod, salmon — salmon, fish — fish etc.

When used with numbers such nouns do not change their form: two million people, ten fish, fifty salmon.

Use of these words in the plural form is associated with semantic and stylistic changes: sheeps (породы овец), fishes (виды рыб).

Form of the verb in such nouns depends on contextual realization of the subject: One sheep was sold; Two sheep were sold. However, in Russian we can see a change in cases of some word: Одна овца было продано; Две овцы были проданы. There is tense has not changed except the noun’s suffix and its case.

In compared languages of pronouns there are two main ways of expressing explicit plurality: affixal and suppletive ways. In English and Russian affixal way of expressing plural pronouns in the same way as forming plural nouns. In English, with the suffix — (e)s formed plurals in reflexive pronouns, in Russian suffix и.

myself

– ourselves

себя

сами

yourself

– yourselves

сам

himself/herself/itself

themselves

For example:

  • - …interspersed with huge crags that appeared to lie loosely upon the soil, and in many cases were prevented from precipitating themselves into the valleys below …
  • - Сами авдиторы, слушая урок, смотрели одним глазом под скамью…

In the compared languages, suppletive way is characterize the personal pronouns.

I

– we

Я

- мы

(thou)

– you

Ты

- вы

he/she/ it

they

он/она

они

For example: - "You observe there are no divisions between the words.”

  • они потянулись, погоняя лошадей и напевая песню, которой слова и смысл вряд ли бы кто разобрал.

In English there are also absolute or nominal forms that simultaneously receive and suffix - s in some persons. But in the Russian language structure in the plural pronouns is changed.

Mine

– ours

мое

- наше

(thine)

– yours

твое

- ваше

his/hers/ its

theirs

его/ ее

их

For example:Theirs chief amusements were gunning and fishing…

  • Бурсаки пошли вперед, и, к величайшей радости их, в отдалении почудился лай.

Number denotes an abstract number, which is the basis of the category of the plurality as its main component.

A.N. Kononov gives the following definition of number: "The name of a number — is part of speech, denoting the name of the abstract number (two + two = four), the number of subjects (two tables), the order of things under the account (second table) ...“.

For example:

  • “The two upper black spots look like eyes, eh?”
  • "One, two, tree, four, five—I done pass five big limb, massa, 'pon this side.“
  • Два богослова обыкновенно решали, как происходить битве…
  • Один раз во время подобного странствования три бурсака своротили с большой дороги в сторону, с тем чтобы в первом попавшемся хуторе запастись провиантом, потому что мешок у них давно уже был пуст.

To sum up, the result of our research shows that there are several similarities in number of Russian and English languages. As can be seen from the analysis of a particular language material, typological category of plurality is equally characteristic for systems of English and Russian languages and as a typological forms serve the same morphological and lexical units hierarchy of language.

Список литературы

  1. Буранов Дж. Сравнительная типология английского и тюркских языков. М.: Высшая школа, 1983
  2. Poe E.A. The Gold-Bug. Sullivan's Island, South Carolina (United States): Hesperus Press, 1974
  3. Николай Васильевич Гоголь «Вий». М.: Эксмо, 2014