Phraseology is a knowledge of phraseological units (phraseologisms), a combination of indivisible and very stable or persistent phrases in a particular language. As it is known, language expresses the experience accumulated by people in their own life. These experiences are reflected in the actions, language and wisdom of every nation, and they represent a specific culture, the character of the people. In the modern linguistics, phraseology is studied as a significant part of lexicology, a specific area. The phraseologisms contain at least two independent words. They represent a portable meaning as a whole. For example, to kick the bucket, Greek gift, drink till all's blue, drunk as a fiddler (drunk as a lord, as a boiled owl), as mad as a hatter (as a march hare)Thus, the linguistic unit consisting of two or more words, which expresses a single meaning, is called a phraseological unit or phrase. Here are the main features of the phraseological units:
- At least 2 words should be included in the phraseological units;
- Several independent words within the phraseological units have been recognized as part of an interview,
- Components of the phraseological units have an indefinable general meaning;
- The components in the phraseological units will remain stable for a long time;
- The phraseological units influence their listener with their sensitivity.
According to A.V.Kunin, phraseology is the most colorful language in the world. Every language has its own phraseologisms. Phraseologisms clearly show the history, culture, origins and national character of the people. "Phraseology" is derived from the Greek word "phrases" phrase; "Logos" means knowledge about science and phrases.
When you look at the history of the phraseology study, it is clear that it originally appeared in literature. When translating specific artworks from one language into another, it is impossible to translate a stable word link. The phraseological units in those languages are being studied.
Thus, phraseology was first studied as a subject of literary study. Later in the dictionaries, the meanings of the terms were explained, and the phraseological units were also collected and interpreted. Then the meaning of the phraseological units and their grammatical structure began to be examined in the linguistic science. The present-day faculties are studied in both linguistics and literature.
The term phraseology was first used by the English literary critic Neander in 1558 in the world philology. He had to use this term to translate artistic works.
Study of the phraseological units in the Russian linguistics begins in the XIX century. The Uzbek linguistics began to be studied in the 50's of the 20th century.
It has been understood that scientists have done much in this area. In particular, in the beginning, the subject of phraseology was studied extensively by the French linguist, the father of phraseology, Sh.Balli. In his works such as "Stylistics in the Stylistics" and "Stylistics of the French", he composed the chapters on phraseology by systematizing his speech. Sh. Balli points to four groups of the phraseological units in his work "Stylistics" (1905), and later in the work of the French Stylistics (1909), he concludes a discussion of the phraseological units and separates two groups of phraseological units: 1) free word combinations and (2) compounds. Sh. Balli considers the frauds a semantic phenomenon and sees the semantic nature as a clear sign of frauds. Sh. Shortly after the Ball's phraseology study, phraseology began to form as a separate branch of linguistics. The philosophy has been thoroughly studied, and its scientific literature, dissertations, phraseological dictionaries, and scientific articles covering its various aspects have emerged. A comparative study of the phraseologisms of all languages has been launched. The concept of Shawn Ball was studied by many scientists. (Vinogradov, 1947 (a) 342-344 b., Amosova, 1963, pp. 5-6, Kunin, 1966).
We can show the works of academician V.Vinogradov as the major work devoted to phraseology in Russian linguistics. He has come up with a new theory in the study of this field, taking into account the achievements and shortcomings of scholars who are thinking of genius. Vinogradov has identified and defines the main types of phraseology, has proved phraseology as a part of linguistics and has eliminated a number of shortcomings in this area. Vinogradov, Amosov and others add phraseological compounds to the lexical language of the language. Among those who spoke about phraseology, N.N.Amosova expressed his opinions and comments.
W. Mieder created a collection of the only collection of national and contemporary proverbs in his work titled "Twisted wisdom, Modern Anti-proverbs", which he developed in 1999 at Verment Institute in Vermont. Prior to this, he published a collection of German-language proverbs in Germany. The language of Mieder's collection has been influenced by innovation, and it does not appear to have been created by anyone before. This indicates a strong relationship between national and ethnic cultures. The emergence of new forms of proverbs has been the result of the democratization of the language, the main reason for language changes at the end of the 20th and early 21st centuries is the change of viewpoints in society. Now, it is not a matter of lengthy words to refer to people, but to a broader meaning. That is why modern appearances of proverbs have emerged.
In conclusion, it can be said that phraseology is remarkable by its dignity, its educational significance, and its direct manifestation of the reasonableness of people. Every scientist witnessed a specific view of phraseology. It is desirable to study phraseology as a separate, important branch of linguistics. Because the phraseological units relate to humanity, or to all the spheres, which cover the entire universe. You can find phraseologisms that describe each situation, every action. From this point of view, phraseologists have their own rules. Phraseology is still a matter to be studied and studied.