Наследственность и развитие


педагогические науки

В статье освещается о природном (биологическом) начале в человеке, которое связывает его с предками, а через них со всем живым миром. Врожденные и унаследованные предрасположения развиваются при воздействии главных внешних влияний — среды и воспитания.

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It is established that the process and results of human development are determined by the joint influence of three General factors — heredity, environment and education. The basis of development is formed by innate and inherited predispositions, designated by the generalizing term "heredity". Innate and inherited predispositions develop under the influence of the main external influences-environment and education. The interaction of these factors can be either optimal, or, when revaluing one or the other external component, inharmonious. It is also possible that the innate and inherited base is not sufficiently developed as an environment and education.

Natural (biological) origin in man connects it with ancestors, and through them with the whole living world, especially with higher animals. Reflection of biological-heredity, which is understood as the transfer from parents to children of certain qualities and characteristics. Carriers of heredity-genes (in Greek "gene" means "giving birth"). Science has proved that the properties of the organism are encrypted in a kind of gene code that stores and transmits all the information about the properties of the organism. Genetics has deciphered the hereditary program of human development.

Hereditary human development programs include deterministic and variable parts that define both what makes a person a person, and what makes people so different from each other. The deterministic part of the program provides primarily the continuation of the human race, as well as the specific makings of a person as a representative of the human race, including the makings of speech, erect, work, thinking. From parents to children are transferred to the external signs: physique, Constitution, color of hair, eyes and skin. The combination of different proteins in the body is genetically programmed, blood groups and RH factor are determined. Inherited physical characteristics determine the visible and invisible differences between people.

To hereditary are also features of the nervous system, causing the nature of the course of mental processes. Flawed, deficient nervous activity of the parents, including pathological causes of mental disorder, illness (e.g., schizophrenia) can be transmitted to offspring. Hereditary nature have blood diseases (hemophilia), diabetes, some endocrine disorders — dwarfism, for example. Alcoholism and drug addiction of parents have a negative impact on the offspring.

Variant part of the program provides the development of systems that help the human body to adapt to changing conditions of its existence. The vast unfilled areas of the hereditary program are provided for further training. Each person completes this part of the program on their own. This nature provides an exceptional opportunity for a person to realize his human potency through self-development and self-improvement. Thus, the need for education is inherent in human nature. The pedagogical aspect of the research of the laws of human development covers the study of the inheritance of intellectual, special, social, moral and spiritual (in a broad sense) qualities.

The question of inheritance of intellectual qualities is extremely important. What the children inherit is a ready ability to a specific activity or disposition, inclinations? Considering abilities as individual psychological features of the personality, as conditions of successful performance of certain types of activity, teachers distinguish them from inclinations — potential opportunities for development of abilities. The analysis of the facts accumulated in the experimental studies allows us to answer the question clearly: inherited not the ability, but only the makings.

Inherited the makings of a person developing or not developing. It all depends on whether the person will be able to transition hereditary potency in specific abilities that ensure success in a particular activity. Whether an individual like Raphael will be able to realize his talent depends on the circumstances: living conditions, environment, needs of society, finally on the demand for the product of a particular human need.

Particularly acute debate is the question of inheritance of abilities to intellectual (cognitive, educational) activities. Pedagogically based on the fact that normal people receive from nature of high potential for the development of their mental and cognitive forces, and capable of almost unlimited spiritual development. The existing differences in the types of higher nervous activity change only the course of thought processes, but do not predetermine the quality and level of intellectual activity. At the same time, teachers around the world recognize that heredity can be unfavorable for the development of intellectual abilities.

Negative predispositions create, for example, sluggish cells of the cerebral cortex in children born to alcoholics, impaired genetic structures in drug addicts, some hereditary mental diseases.

Many teachers, based on the latest research, believe proven intellectual inequality of people and the root cause of it recognize biological heredity. The makings for cognitive activities that determine educational opportunity, inherited by people in varying degrees. From this it is concluded that human nature is not amenable to improvement, intellectual abilities remain unchanged and constant. The improvement of a person through genetics is not achieved. Only education is able gradually to Refine.

Understanding the process of inheritance of intellectual inclinations determines the practical ways of education and training of people. Modern pedagogy focuses not on identifying differences and adapting education to them, but on creating equal conditions for the development of each person's inclinations. Most foreign pedagogical systems assume that education should follow development; it only helps to Mature what is inherent in man by nature, and therefore should only be adapted to the inclinations and abilities of man.

In the definition of special inclinations there is no particular disagreement between representatives of different pedagogical systems. Special called makings to a particular activity. It is established that children with special inclinations achieve much higher results and move forward in the chosen field of activity at a rapid pace. With a strong expression of such inclinations are manifested at an early age, if the child is provided with the necessary conditions. Special inclinations are musical, artistic, mathematical, linguistic, sports, etc.