Процесс развития человекакак педагогическая проблема


педагогические науки

В статье анализируется о развитии как о процессе происходящих количественных и качественных изменений, результатом которого являются духовное, интеллектуальное, социальное и физическое развитие личности.

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Translated from the Latin "process" means moving forward, change. Development is the process of quantitative and qualitative changes in the body. Its result is physical, intellectual, social and spiritual development of a person. Biological in man is characterized by physical development, including morphological, biochemical, physiological changes. And spiritual development finds expression in intellectual, social growth.

If a person reaches the level of development, which allows us to consider him a carrier of consciousness and self-consciousness, capable of independent transformative activity, then such a person is called a personality. Man is not born as a person, but becomes one in the process of development. The concept of "personality", in contrast to the concept of" person", is a social characteristic, indicating those qualities that are formed under the influence of social relations, communication with other people. As a person, a person is formed in the social system through purposeful and thoughtful education. Personality is determined by the measure of appropriation of social experience, on the one hand, and the measure of return to society, feasible contribution to the Treasury of material and spiritual values — on the other.

Human development is a complex, long and controversial process. Changes in the body occur throughout life, but especially rapidly changing physical data and the spiritual world of man in childhood and adolescence. Development is not limited to a simple accumulation of quantitative changes and a straight forward movement from the lowest to the highest. A characteristic feature of this process is the dialectical transition of quantitative changes in the qualitative transformation of physical, intellectual and spiritual characteristics of the individual.

Representatives of different philosophies give different explanations to this largely unexplored process.

Human development is a spontaneous, unmanageable, spontaneous process; it occurs regardless of living conditions and is determined only by "innate potency", fatally determined by the fate of a person in which no one can change anything — this is only a small part of the opinions of representatives of various philosophical doctrines. In development, the old is destroyed and the new is created. Unlike animals, passively adapting to life, man creates means of existence by his work.

The driving force of development is the struggle of contradictions. The latter are likened to the" eternal engine", which gives inexhaustible energy for transformations and updates. Contradiction is faced in the conflict of opposing principles. Man does not have to seek or invent contradictions, they arise at every step as a dialectical consequence of changing needs generated by development. And the man himself is "woven" of contradictions.

There are contradictions internal and external, General (universal), driving the development of human masses, and individual, characteristic of a single person. Universal character have contradictions between arising under the influence of objective factors needs of the person, beginning from simple material and finishing the highest spiritual, and possibilities of their satisfaction. The same character and contradictions are manifested in the imbalance between the body and the environment, which leads to a change in behavior, a new adaptation of the body. Internal contradictions arise on the basis of" disagreement with oneself " and are expressed in the individual motives of a person, and external stimulated by external forces, human relations with other people, society, nature. One of the main internal contradictions is the discrepancy between emerging new needs and opportunities to meet them. For example, between the desire of high school students to participate in social and industrial processes and real opportunities due to the level of development of their psyche and intellect, social maturity. "Want" "can", "know" — "don't know", "can" — "not", "is" — "no" — this is a typical pair, succinctly expresses our constant conflict.