Методика педагогического воздействия

№93-1,

педагогические науки

В статье анализируется проблема педагогического воздействия, которое является компонентом педагогической деятельности и приводятся примеры этих методов.

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In involves active actions of the adult and their willingness to take the child, i.e. to be nurtured. This generates subject-object relationships that put the student in a passive position, he is only the performer of what is set by the teacher.

The teacher demonstrates the necessary samples, the algorithm to be followed. The child must remember and repeat.

Humanistic pedagogy speaks of the need to recognize the subjective role of the child in his relations with the world and people.

Educational impact has a complex technology, which is determined by the interaction of a number of important components.

First of all, these are the methods of education, which means a set of practical or mental actions and techniques of the educator and educator, performing which can achieve the desired results. It is a system of principles that is prescriptive and prescribes how to organize worthwhile productive activities. The method of education is one of the tools not only to influence the person, but also the interaction.

Methods of education show their content through:

  • the direct influence of the teacher on the pupil (through persuasion, moralizing, requirements, orders, threats, punishment, encouragement, personal example, authority, requests, advice);
  • the creation of special conditions, situations and circumstances that force the pupil to change their own attitude, to Express their position, to carry out an act, to show character;
  • public opinion of the reference group, for example, the team (school, student, professional), personally significant for the pupil;
  • joint activities of the teacher with the pupil, communication, game;
  • the processes of learning and self-education, as well as the transfer of information in the family, in the process of friendly professional communication.

Methods of education are determined by the goals, principles, content of education.

Methods of persuasion, with the help of which the views, ideas, concepts are formed, there is a rapid exchange of information (suggestion, narrative, dialogue, proof, appeals, beliefs).

Methods of exercises, through which the activities of students are organized and stimulated its positive motives (different types of tasks for individual and group activities in the form of assignments, requirements, competitions, demonstration of samples and examples, creating situations of success).

Methods of assessment and self-assessment, through which the definition of actions, stimulation of activity, is assisted in self-regulation of their behavior (criticism, encouragement, observation, punishment, control, self-control, self-criticism, creating a situation of trust).

Education is also expressed in certain forms of appropriate organization of collective and individual activities of students — mass forms (participation of the entire educational team), group form, individual form.

+ debate, "round table", conversation on ethical topics, teleconference, charity event, literary and musical composition.

The choice of forms of educational work is determined on the basis of scientific principles of education. For each team should choose the most appropriate form. The diversity and richness in the content of the forms of organization of the educational process contribute to its effectiveness.

At the heart of the choice of forms of educational work should be pedagogical feasibility. Applied the same forms of organization of educational work lose their novelty, become stencil and therefore do not give the expected effect. Therefore, experienced teachers are constantly looking for new effective forms of education.

The effectiveness of pedagogical influence is determined by how the child is brought up to the teacher. A moderate point of view on the issue under discussion is perceived as extreme against the background of a sharply opposite position, and Vice versa (contrast effect). People tend to exaggerate or downplay their differences of opinion depending on the relationship between them and those who hold the relevant opinion (assimilation effect). If you sympathize with the person, then differences underestimate, if not sympathize with, respectively exaggerate.