Correctional pedagogy is a new growing branch of modern pedagogical science. In the academic world there is still no consensus on the place of correctional pedagogy in the structure of modern pedagogy, which is why its object, subject, goals and objectives are not clearly defined. Other branches of pedagogical science closely cooperate with it and develop close problems: rehabilitation pedagogy studying problems of inclusion in normal life of children in trouble (secondary school No. 1 in Beslan, September 1-3, 2004); preventive pedagogy (lat. warning, safety), investigating the issues of forced correction of children's behavior; defectology-the science of education and training of children with disabilities of psychophysical development; therapeutic pedagogy (valeology), developing a complex of "sparing" methods of education, upbringing and development of weakened children.
Correction (lat. correctio-correction) — a system of pedagogical and therapeutic measures aimed at overcoming or weakening the shortcomings of mental and physical development of abnormal children.
Correctional pedagogy (special pedagogy), studying the problems of education and upbringing of children with disabilities.
Correctional pedagogy, as a branch of pedagogical science, studies regularities, causes of deviant behavior in children, develops ways and means of its correction.
The subject of correctional pedagogy-deviant development and behavior of children. The object of correctional pedagogy is the personality of a child with minor deviations in psychophysiological development or behavioral abnormalities that complicate his socialization and school adaptation. The object of correctional pedagogy are children with four "D", i.e. children with a mild defect, who suffered deprivation at an early age (lat. deprivation-deprivation), because of this experiencing school maladaptation (des — FR. — no, lat. adaptatio-device) and showing deviation (lat. deviation-deviation) in behavior. There is another approach to understanding the essence of correctional pedagogy. Some scientists (N. N. Malofeev, B. P. Puzanov) is replaced by the term "correctional pedagogy" pre-existing concept of "defectology". In our country for 70 years the term "defectology" was used as the name of special education of persons with developmental disabilities. In parallel to the term " defectology "two closely related terms" special pedagogy "and"special psychology" were used. In the 90-ies of XX century the essential meaning of the term was lost. The development of contacts with the world scientific community and foreign pedagogical practice showed absolute unacceptability and negative attitude to the term "defectology" ("science of defects") abroad. The term "correctional pedagogy" is not well-known and widely used among foreign specialists abroad. It is used along with the term "special pedagogy" in the CIS countries. Today, the social and educational environment of an ordinary school is uncomfortable for a number of children. The task of correctional pedagogy is to develop a system of correctional and developmental education (CRO), which is becoming more widespread in secondary schools. The main task of correctional pedagogy is to provide teachers and parents with knowledge about the causes of adaptive disorders in children, about ways to prevent and eliminate them, about possible methods of improving the conditions of family and public education. Particular tasks: study of General patterns of development of children at risk; study of patterns of CRO; development of principles, methods, technologies, organizational conditions, scientific basis of the content of CRO; development of correctional and developmental, compensation and rehabilitation programs for the CRO system in secondary school.
Categories of correctional pedagogy:
- Education and development of abnormal children.
- Education of abnormal children.
- Correction (lat. correction) — correction, elimination of defects of mental and physical development.
- Correctional and educational work.
- Compensation (lat. compensation-compensation, balancing) — replacement or restructuring of impaired or underdeveloped functions of the body.
- Social rehabilitation (lat. rehabilitas — rehabilitation fitness, ability).