Педагогическая техника и её компоненты


педагогические науки

В статье освещается о педагогической технике и составляющие её таких компонентов как управлять своим поведением, умения воздействовать на личность и коллектив.

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Delving into the secrets of success of teachers of masters, we find honed methods of pedagogical influence, skillful formulation and solution of a variety of practical problems. An important role here belongs to the pedagogical technique of the teacher. Pedagogical technique just contributes to the harmonious unity of the internal content of the teacher and his external expression. The teacher's skill is in the synthesis of spiritual culture and pedagogically expedient external expressiveness.

Pedagogical technique-a complex of General pedagogical and psychological skills of the teacher, providing possession of their own psycho-physiological state, mood, emotions, body, speech and organization of pedagogically appropriate communication (pedagogical dictionary. — M., 2000.- P. 148).

Components of pedagogical technique. It is customary to include two groups of components: 1. The teacher's ability to control his behavior: possession of the body (mimicry, pantomime); management of emotions, mood (removing unwanted mental stress that a creative being); social-perceptual abilities (attention, observation, imagination); the technique of speech (breath, voice, diction, rate of speech). 2. The ability to influence the individual and the team (reveals the technological side of the pedagogical process): didactic, organizational, constructive, communicative skills; technological methods of presentation of requirements, management of pedagogical communication, the organization of collective creative Affairs, etc. Typical mistakes of pedagogical technique novice teacher: inability to sincerely talk with the student, his parents, to contain anger, suppress uncertainty; fuzzy speech, tongue Twister; excessive rigor, fear of a friendly tone, a sense of fear.; unnecessary gestures at the Board or petrified posture; posture: slouching, drooping head, helpless movement of his hands, spinning various objects; speech: the monotony, the dullness of the speech, the lack of skills of expressive reading, fuzzy diction, inability to find the best option volume.

Useful tips VA the young teacher. In the book" a Hundred of tips to the teacher " Sukhomlinsky gives advice on the education of du-chevny balance: to prevent the germination of gloom, exaggeration of other people's vices; to turn to humor, to be optimistic, to be friendly, deeply aware of the social role of the profession, to be responsive, to self-analysis and adequate self-esteem. Control of the body: to direct the tone of facial, skeletal muscles, the rate of speech, breathing, to conduct a relaxation session before the lesson, achieving physical and mental relaxation; autogenous training (mental self-regulation) should become part of the teacher's "pedagogical toilet" along with breathing and articulation exercises. Sukhomlinsky advises: sit in the " pose of the coachman "and say the formula:" I am calm. I confidently lead the lesson. Guys are listening. I feel relaxed in class. I'm well prepared for the lesson. The lesson is interesting. Guys all know and see. I'll have a good lesson. The children were interested in me. I'm sure he's full of energy. I'm good with myself. The mood is cheerful and good. Students respect me, listen and fulfill my requirements. I like to work in the classroom. I am a teacher". An important element of the professional skills of modern teachers is speaking.

Thinkers of the past always paid attention to it. Farabi believed that the teacher should be so proficient in the word that provides full attention from the students. The language of the teacher, in his opinion, should be accurate and clear, expressive, bright and attractive to students.

It is a professional necessity for a teacher. Functions: communication, impact on personality, means of education and upbringing. Forms: external speech (oral): monologue, dialogue, polylogue; written: report, abstract, etc.; internal speech. Speech technique: professional qualities of the teacher's voice: timbre, intonation, diction, tempo rhythm (120 words per minute). Types of speech activity: reading, writing, listening, speaking. Stylistic varieties of speech: scientific, official-business, conversational, artistic, journalistic. Requirements for speech: clarity of pronunciation, expressiveness, emotionality, clear diction, accuracy of word usage, imagery, culture of speech behavior, compliance with the norms of word usage, compliance with the tempo. Shortcomings in the possession of it: monotony, lifelessness, excess of tempo, fuzzy diction, vagueness of word usage, violations of the rules of the language.

The skill of the teacher in the classroom

Further deepening of the reform and modernization of our society, including the sphere of education, requires from each initiative, creativity (creativity) independent thinking, new, non-standard approaches and solutions.

Lesson at school (Lyceum, College) — the main springboard of pedagogical creativity. Today it is necessary to move away from this method, when the teacher prefers to "voice" the text of the textbook, at best, "in your own words." Modern times require that the students in the classroom independently been thinking of, or during the discussions, the discussions sought answers to the questions posed. In the 80s of the last century in pedagogy began to revive progressive humanistic ideas, this direction was called "Pedagogy of cooperation". Today, advanced teachers use the main provisions of pedagogy of cooperation in their lessons. This direction focuses on the involvement of children in teaching, on the joint work of teachers and children and at the same time requires a personality-oriented approach.

The main provisions (principles) of pedagogy of cooperation: learning without coercion-to remove the feeling of fear in the classroom, looseness, freedom, self-confidence; the idea of a difficult goal-to put in front of children as a more complex goal, belief in the ability to overcome difficulties unites children; the idea of free choice-free choice of tasks makes it possible to overcome the uneven development of individual qualities of the individual, promotes harmonious development; the idea of advance-take time in the lesson for the development of the material that will be studied in the future. ; the idea of large blocks — the material comes in large blocks (3-4 paragraph from a textbook) and this gives the opportunity to increase the volume of the studied material with a sharp decrease in the load on the student; the idea of the appropriate form — in mathematics, without further ADO, the history — may be noise in the discussion on literature — analysis of the work must be an art form; the intellectual background of class (term VA) — the total pursuit of knowledge does not wean and to wean students from the difficulties, from mental stress, from the heuristic (found) pleasures; personality-oriented approach-to use such techniques in which each student feels like a person, feels the teacher's attention to him personally.

Skill of the teacher in the management of cognitive activity of students. Skill management of cognitive activity in the classroom depends on many factors. The main provisions of the development of interest in learning: the student in the classroom is active, involved in the process of self-search and" discovery " of new knowledge, solves problems; educational work is interesting when it is diverse; the student needs to understand the necessity, the importance of the feasibility of studying this subject; new material is more associated with the previously acquired knowledge; easy, not too difficult material is not of interest, learning should be difficult, but feasible; regularly check and evaluate the work of students; brightness, emotionality of educational material; a variety of teaching methods, focusing on the application of methods of development of interest in the teaching and methods of stimulating debt and responsibility in educational work; use of tasks of a problematic, creative nature; effective independent work in the classroom; feedback in the classroom.

Skill of the tutor. Graduates of pedagogical universities often complain about the inability to conduct spiritual and educational work at school (Lyceum, College). For many teachers, the development of teacher skills is a more difficult process than the development of teaching skills. Makarenko, considering the work of the teacher, said that the activities of the teacher is, in essence, the activities of the organizer. And the skill of the teacher is nothing but the skill of the organizer of children's lives. The skill of a teacher is a combination of theory and practice.