Взаимосвязь между гендером и языком


филологические науки

Человечество не только создало язык, но и стало его активным пользователем; следовательно, изучение языка должно ориентироваться не только на символах, но должно также ориентироваться на самого человека. Но самым существенным различием меду людьми считается гендерное различие, поэтому у людей разных полов с точки зрения психологии либо физиологии, существуют свои гендерные характеристики в использовании языка, что в общей степени приводит к дифференциации использования языка. Анализируя и изучая значение гендерных различий в языке, мы можем отметить актуальность этой нынешней проблемы.

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Humanity not only created language, but also become the active user of this tool; therefore, the study on linguistics should not only be made from the perspective of symbol, but more should be human-oriented. But the most significant difference between human beings is the gender difference, so people of different genders from either physiology or psychology in the use of language will have their own gender characteristics, which leads to the gender differences in language. By analyzing and studying on the connotation of gender differences in language and the social sources of it, we can conclude the significance of gender differences in language.

Indisputably, women’s speech differs from men’s speech; and women and men use language differently due to the styles, registers, and the way of using language, interaction, thought, culture, and linguistic attitudes gender, politeness and stereotypes. In fact, there is a number of close relationships between Gender and language. Furthermore, men’s way of using language and women’s way of using language is different. It is because of structure of the language, norm of the society or people of the society who use the language. Moreover, gender (male-female) is socially constructed. In addition to this, men’s style of speaking and women style of speaking are deeply rooted in power of structure.

Language itself, exists as a system of symbols, in terms of abstract thinking and senses, it reveals a method and way to describe the objective world. From another perspective, language system and language structure’s difference reflected our different recognitions of the world in some degree. Moreover, as a kind of historical and cultural heritage, during the process of using it, the language in a certain sense, reflects the formation of cultural traditions, evolution of civilization, national spirit creation, and social life improvement.

In the study of language and gender differences [1], many linguists such as Leonard Bloomfield, McConnell-Ginet, Haas, Zhao Yuanren and so on have dabbled in them. In the process of the study they concluded that: in different contexts, men and women have differences to a degree in phonology, vocabulary and grammar, syntax options.

Vocabulary is the most active element in language. So, the vocabulary difference manifests the relationship between gender difference and language use. According to Wenjing (2012) [2], there is no rule for female in English pronunciation rules, vocabulary structure and syntax, but the male and female differences in vocabulary is often encountered in daily life, and also overlooked. Robin Lakoff (1975) suggests as an explanation [3] that in this society woman spend much more of their time on colour-related activities such as choosing clothes than men do. They prefer to use colour terms borrowed from French, such as azure (blue), aquamarine (blue-green) etc. These words are not familiar to them but they can show their elegance. These words are unfamiliar for men.

Because of the traditional social factors, men have higher social status, thus leading to their privileges in speech. At the same time, he carried on the explanation to the interaction effect of gender and language. Combining with the factors of age, Chinese linguist Chen Songcen [4] pointed out the gender and age variations that caused when using languages. Their appearance is not because of human socialization distance or communication difficulties, but because of the social psychological factors of speakers with different genders and different ages. According to a survey ( made by Chen Songcen, Chinese linguist) [4], there are sexual salutation differences for strangers having the same occupation in Beijing. The survey results also show that the young and the old are quite different in diction and discourse habits. Different gender and age will cause the diversity of languages, there are two aspects of reasons: first, when the traditional social status is different, their mental state will be different; second, men and women play different roles in society, their participation in social activities and the scope of their activities in society also have great differences, and all these factors resulted in the variation of their language.

There exist some differences in the syntactic structure of choice between men and women. Mostly, women like to use tag questions most in syntactically. They use rising tone which is used to express consult and the uncertain tone. On the other hand, men prefer to speak directly and that is why they always select declarative and imperative sentences to express the tone of orders and requests.

Reasons for gender differences in language use:

Gender differences in language phenomenon are not random; they have the social root. Gender differences are the rudimental facts of social life and human differences. It reflects that there is a long historical origin in language difference phenomenon. Men and women have different status and play different roles, thus they have different duties and different rights. Researchers think the formation of language difference is due to the unequal status of males and females.

Furthermore, language behavior reflects the social dominance of men, weakness of women. In this meaning, an individual’s language behavior must comply with the social status. People who break these rules will be considered impolite

So, for many men, the use of language is mainly a means to preserve independence and maintain status in a hierarchical social order. For many women, the use of language is negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support. Furthermore, language is a mirror of society. Different languages belong to different social status, such as working class and middle class, etc.

There can be no difference in any language itself. But language can be used by people to achieve a particular purpose which reflects the personal or social values. Restriction of the use of language because of the social environment creates gender difference mostly. As there are two different genders — male and female, on account of the differences between the physiological features and the superiority and inferiority in social activities, men and women are differentiated from each other in individuality, value, image and status, which give rise to variations in their language styles and language uses.

Список литературы

  1. Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and women’s place. New York: Harper and Row.
  2. Wenjing, W., & Ching-yu hsieh, S. (2007). Gender Differences in the Language for Emotions. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 2(1-4), 89-97.
  3. Lakoff, R. (1990). You just don‟t understand: Women and men in conversation. New York: Ballantine. Talbot, M. (1998). Language and Gender- An Introduction. Polity Press.
  4. Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Chen Songcen (2007). Gender Differences in the Language for Emotions. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 2(1-4), 100-123.
  6. Köhler, A. (2008) Gender and Language. From: http://books.google.com.hk/books?id=Wv4YyPTDQWMC&lpg=PP1&ots