Morphonology is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes. Its chief focus is the sound changes that take place in morphemes when they combine to form words. When morphemes combine, they in fluency, each other`s sound structure, resulting in different variant pronunciations for the same morpheme. Morphonology attempts to analyze these processes. A language`s morphological structure in generally described with a series of rules which, ideally, can predict every morphonological alternation that takes place in the language. Theory of phoneme alternations suggested by I.A. Baudouin de Courtaney was very important in further development of linguistics. It has contributed to the formation of a new branch of linguistics — “morphonology” which is defined differently by various linguistics. In the formation of morphonology much credit goes to N.S.Trubetzkoy who defined it as 1) a part of word phonology which studies the phonological structure of morphemes, as 2) a division of grammar, as 3) a linking branch between morphonology and phonology Among these definitions the first and the third can be accepted many phonologists assumed that neutralizing rules generally applied befor allophonic rules. Thus phonological analysis was split into two parts: a morphonophonological part, where neutralizing rules were developed to derive phonemes from morphophonemes; and a purely phonological part, where phones were derived from the phonemes. Since the 1960 s many linguists have moved away from making such a split, instead regarding the surface phones as being derived from the underlying morphonemes through a single system of phonological rules.
In flected and agglutinating languages may have extremely complicated systems of morphophonemics.
Consonant gradation, found in some Uralic languages such as Finnish, Estonian, Northem Sami and ect. Vowel harmany, which occurs in varying olegrees in languages all around the world, notable Turkie languages. Ablaut, found in English and other Germanic languages. Ablaut is the phenomenon where in stem vowels change form depending on context, as in English speak-spoke-spoken.
In recent theories not all the alternations taking place within morphemes are included in morphonology, though some linguists, especially American scholars, regard it is being so. Morphonology does not include the description of suppletion or portmanteau morphemes, internal infrexion, i.e. the changes in the of a word or base morphemes distinguishing grammatical forms.
An example of a morphonological alternation in English is provided by the plural morpheme, written as “s” or “es”. Its pronunciation alternates between [s], [z], and [ɪz], as desks [desks], bags [bægz], boxes [boksɪz]
English past tense ending “-ed” is similar it can be pronounced as in worked, ended [ˈendɪd], wonted [wɔntɪd]
In Russian: весло — вёсла [э]-[о] Сон — сны [o]-[Ø] Пруд — пруды [т]-[д] Молоток — молотки [o]-[Ø] Друг — друзья [г]-[з]
Historical alternations take place in words etimologically related e.g
intend — intent [d]-[t] Speak — speech [k]-[ ʧ] Gold — gild [ou]-[ ɪ] Foot — feet [u]-[i:]
Verb — noun Счесть — счёт [э]-[о] Углублять — глубь [у]-[ Ø] Оголь — голь [о]-[ Ø]
чанқамоқ — чанқоқ [a]-[o] Сина — синов [a]-[o] Ўқимоқ — ўқув [i]-[u] Тергамоқ — тергов [a]-[o] Уламоқ — улов [a]-[o]
It is often reasonable to assume that the isolation form of a morpheme provides its underlying representation. For example: in some varieties of American English, plant is pronounced while planting is , where the morpheme “plant” appears in the form here the underlying form can be assumed to be corresponding to the isolation form since rules can be set up to derive the reduced form from an underlying
abiritant — abirritate [n]-[Ø] Adscript — ascription [d]-[Ø]
бубен — бубна [Ø]-[o] Волокно — волокон [Ø]-[o] Котел — котла [e]-[Ø]
суст — сусаймоқ [Ø]-[a] Суягич — суянчиқ [Ø]-[n] Улуғ — улғаймоқ [u]-[Ø]
The position of stress may also determined by a certain position of stress. The position of stress may also vary in different word derivates formed from one base morpheme. The substitution of phonemes by one another and the change of the position of stress within morphemes are called phoneme and stress alternations
Explaining phoneme and stress alternations we have defined their morphological aspect of phoneme and stress alternations may be studied independently as a “bridge” linguistic level between phonology and morphology
The alternation of stress, conditioned by suffixes or an increase of final syllables occurs not only in English words of Germanic origin but in words borrowed from other languages, e.g
Family — familiar — famili'arity ' Prince — prin'cess Photograph — photo'grapher
A'cademy — aca'demic — acade'mician
акаде'мия — акаде'мик — академи'ческий
акаде'мия — акаде'мик — академи'к