Лексико-семантические и методологические особенности белого и черного цветов


Филологические науки

В статье описаны лексико-семантические особенности черного и белого цветов в узбекском семантическом поле образования. Особое внимание уделяется развитию смысловых и гендерных особенностей цветовых качеств. Автор использовал разные источники для описания семантических особенностей черного и белого цветов с помощью фразеологизмов и предложений, взятых из разных известных узбекских романов.

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Today, the semantic and gender features of color qualities are widely promoted in the Uzbek language. The main reason for this is the wider promotion of the wide features of our native language and the enrichment of the Uzbek language. In the Uzbek language, such words as white, red, black, blue, yellow, blue, green, brown, pink, blue, red, yellow, brown form a separate lexical-semantic group. Such qualities are called color-expressing qualities. We know that colors not only signify, but also have different symbolic meanings.

For example, white has long been used to symbolize purity, goodness, and light. In the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Uzbek language" it is said that white quality means the colors of snow, milk, cotton, and white gauze, white paper, white bread. White is also used to express a white complexion, a clear face, body color, which is the gender promotion of its colors: White body, white skin, white face.

For example: The woman was going to sit down, her satin dress and thin white hands were visible from inside the blanket(paranji). The phrase "white wrist"( “Oq bilak”) refers to women who do not dip their hands in cold water, but only knit. The word white in this phrase is limited to the meaning of color. The word white is used in a figurative sense in phrases, proverbs, and sayings in relation to other words of color. For example: white heart, to care the by soul (oq yuvib, oq taramoq), to recognize black and white, to have white eyes, to have white forehead, to make white milk white, to make blue milk blue, Our goal is to give people consciousness and understanding, so that everyone can distinguish between good and evil, black and white! Said Elmurod. (P.Tursun)

The phrase "black and white of someones eyes"( “Kozining oq-u qorasi ”) is mainly used in the context of the family. oq-u qorasi means unique. The semantic feature of the word white in the phrase let the forehead be white expresses the meaning of applause, a prayer made with good intentions. This can be seen in the works of many Uzbek writers. For example: “Toleng toabad bolmasin qora”, Let your forehead be white and bright. (A.Oripov) One of such expressions is the phrase "the cup is not white"( kosasi oqarmagan), which is applied to those who have not been blessed to find the phrase, and one is not two. If Ikromjon thinks like this, if this artist works with a client's partner, his cup will not turn white. (S.Ahmad)

In Uzbek linguistics there are many words formed on the basis of white color. In words such as white way, white heart, white forehead, the word white is limited to the original meaning and comes in a figurative sense. Words formed on the basis of white color further enrich our vocabulary and increase its semantic features. Now we will explain the lexical, semantic and gender features of the word Black in the Uzbek language. Black Uzbek is one of the ancient and key words of the dictionary. Although the original meaning of the word black is color, it is also often used figuratively. The use of the word black is found in the oldest written monuments, in the Orkhon-Enasay inscriptions, in the "Devonu lug'atit-turk". For example, a dark day, a dark heart, a dark intention (qora kun, kongli qora, qora niyat). The fact that the word has about twenty meanings in the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Uzbek language" indicates its active use in our language. When the lexeme of black quality is used in speech only to indicate the color of the object, it is free from emotional expressiveness, while its function is limited to informing about the color.

Dark colors that are prone to black are also called black in current speech: black bread, black cherry, black soil, black cloud, and so on. In the darkness he saw a pea-sized black spot. (S.Karomatov) A black house combination is used for a house that is dry, blackened or whitewashed, unpainted, and unfinished. Polvon's parents and grandparents lived in a small black room to the right of Dolon. (J. Sharipov)

Qualities such as behavior, greed, gossip, greed, cruelty, which do not conform to the moral norms of human nature, are also used with the black lexeme: evil intentions, dark forces. I'm sorry, I just froze your sweet party with a black message. (Oybek) The word black, combined with some words, signifies a strong level of character that is specific to what they mean. Black winter. Don't get married in the black winter, Inwardly, in black-hearted compounds, the word black is limited to its lexical meaning and is used in a figurative sense to refer to people who do not see the success of others. The act of a black heart is a stubbornness. (proverb) The word black on the face (or face) also has a negative meaning. The black lexeme is superior to other color-expressing adjectives in terms of semantic expression and serves to express the following occasional semantics in our language:

  1. The sema of mourning(motam): Yusufbek Haji Khatmi recited the Qur'an and gave soup to the country. O`zbek oyim dressed in black and offered her condolences. (A.Qodiriy)
  2. The sema of grief(Qayg`u): Do not blacken your family life condition . (E.Vohidov)
  3. The sema of Day : Gone are the terrible days, Black Page. (E.Vohidov)
  4. The sema of Sum, baby : But for a person who does not have a yellow leg next to him, this [eight hundred rubles] is as terrible as the bridle of hell. (Oybek)
  5. The sema of guilt: Did you put a black chain on my white name because you opened your arms to "yourself"? (Cholpon)

The word black is sometimes used as a determinant of black objects. This emphasis is not in vain, of course. This gives additional meaning to a particular subject. For example, a black pot: We are practically boiling a black pot. The black cauldron fell on his head. (In the second sentence, in the general sense of the word.) Black sand: The black sand on the edge of the fire cracked. (Oybek) Black Chachvon: He dared to look at Nurli's face with his own eyes, not with a black Chachvan. Black lamp: A lamp used in the lives of the poor. 'zero can also act as a determinant: Oh, how beautiful your dark eyes are.

In short, the stylistic possibilities of black and white words in our language are very wide, they have a special place in the clear figurative expression of thought, in providing poetic expressiveness, melody.

Список литературы

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  4. Abuzalova M.Q. Hozirgi o'zbek tili. Morfologiya. O'zbek filologiyasi bakalavriat yo'nalishi uchun o'quv-metodik qo'llanma. Buxoro, 2005. 140 b.
  5. Azizov O. Tilshunoslikka kirish. T.: O'qituvchi, 1996. 76 b.