Стиль фольклорных текстов по гендерному индексу


Филологические науки

В течение многих лет использование термина «дискурс» в текстовых исследованиях стало традицией. Исследования языковых и дискурсивных отношений становятся такими же популярными, как исследования языковых и гендерных отношений. Тем не менее, анализ феминистского и мужского дискурса в лингвистике по-прежнему не хватает по политическим и социальным причинам. В данной статье рассматривается стиль английских, итальянских и узбекских фольклорных текстов через номинативно-концептуальных структур «мужчины» и «женщины».

Похожие материалы

Researches on language and discourse are becoming as popular as joint explorations on language and gender. However, the analysis of feminist and masculine discourse in linguistics is still a few for political and social reasons. According to A.Nurmonov and A.Rakhimov, the cooperation of linguistic and non-linguistic phenomena, the application of discursive-synergetic and cognitive actions have a positive impact on the intensification of researches in this area [5, p. 23]. Today, the use of the term “discourse” in text-related researches is becoming a tradition. This term is widely used in the field of text linguistics, as well as in the literature, sociology, political science, philosophy, logic, psychology. S.Mukhammedova and M.Saparniyozova believe that the original meaning of the word “discourse” is “speech”, “speaking”, and in various textbooks the term is used as a synonym for “text” [4, p. 23], its narrow interpretation as “text” or “conversation” contributes to the division of discourse into written and oral types. However, Sh.Safarov takes into account that the concepts of discourse and text are not synonymous with each other; “discourse” should be interpreted more broadly than the text [7, p. 249]. E.Benvenist was the first to introduce the term “discourse” into linguistics, interpreting it as a typical speech of speaker [2, p. 24].

Concepts are interpreted differently by different scholars, including that the simplest ones are concepts represented by a single word, while the more complex ones are units represented by word combinations and sentences. M.Rasulova [6] and G.Xoshimov [9] study the concept as the main category of cognitive linguistics and emphasize that its definition is given by various cognitologists. In general, a concept is a multidimensional product that includes not only conceptual-defining features, but also connotative, figurative (expressive, affective), evaluative, associative features, all of which must be taken into account in the conceptual description. The first approach to the concept was given by Yu.S.Stepanov, who relied more on the field of cultural studies. According to Yu.S.Stepanov, the concept is the main cell of culture in the mental world of person [8, p. 17], and all cultures are interpreted as a set of concepts. N.D.Aryutyunova and members of her school (T.V.Buligina, A.D.Shmelev) emphasize that the essence of concepts is connected with semantics of language units. According to D.U.Ashurova, it is wrong to call all notions as concepts, but only concepts that play an important role in the world and national cultural environment can be concepts [1, p. 11].

When we statistically analyzed the folklore texts of about one hundred and fifty men collectors and fifty women collectors of the English, Italian and Uzbek cultures, the study found that in the folklore texts narrated by male narrators, the male heroes were mostly protagonists (in 43% of English masculine texts, 46% of Italian masculine texts, 40% of Uzbek masculine texts). In folklore texts recorded from the speeches of female narrators, male heroes are portrayed as weak and passive individuals. This is because female “authors” automatically push female heroines to the forefront. Among positive qualities of male heroes more emphasis is given to courage, generosity and luck (19% of English masculine texts, 22% of Italian folklore texts and 11% of Uzbek masculine texts).

However, among the negative qualities, only the tyranny and infantilism in comic folkloric texts, which occur only in masculine texts, were criticized more (4% of English masculine folklorists, 16% of Italian folklorists and 43% of Uzbek folklore texts).

The female protagonists are passive in the masculine folkloric texts, and their popular role is “housewife”: 53% in English male texts, 44% in Italian masculine texts, and 53% in Uzbek masculine texts; 73% of Uzbek feminine texts. Even so, the female protagonists do not withhold their advice from members of the stronger sex and appear as a long-awaited reward. Also, 17% of British, 36% of Italian and 23% of Uzbek masculine narrators depict women as saviors and smarts.

There are peculiar differences between men's and women's folkloric texts, men's discourse is ethical and political-economic in nature in compared languages: La cortesia che le bell’alme accende, costa talora acerbi affanni e pene; ma presto o tardi la virtu risplende, e quando men ci pens ail premio ottiene (The wisdom that fills loving hearts is sometimes achieved through hardship and suffering, and eventually a person comes to light. The less you think about it, the greater the reward); Эр қаерда бўлса, хотин ҳам ўша ерда бўлади; Эрни бор қиладиган ҳам хотин, йўқ қиладиган ҳам хотин (Where the husband is, the wife is there; the woman who creates the man can also destroy). Also, apagorezis (advice, counseling) is actively used in the men's verbal behavior: ‒ Гар саломинг бўлмаганда каллангни сапчадай узардим. Ётиб есанг бу дунё ҳеч нарса бўлмайди (If you lie down, your hear will easily be cut down). Events reflected often tragically in male texts.

Men often refer to nature and environmental hypersemes in their texts: Princess sang wonderful songs about the lake in the royal garden, on weeping willows staring to the fixed surface, on goldfish moving in the water between the branches reflections. To sing, she has to see the trees, the lake, and the green shoots of rice in the fields. Rather, toponyms are active in masculine texts: Сantire, Greenock,Telltown, Oriel, Glenbroun, Abernethy, Kintraw, Lochgilphead; Канъон шаҳри, Авғон боғ, Кустонтония ва Балх шаҳри, Туғдоқ, Эрон, Турон, Фаранг, Афғон, Сирдарё, Қўқон, Ўратепа, Қорачириқ, Ажам, Урганч, Кўҳиқоф, Эрам, Қўқон, Марғилон, Наманган.

In the study, the concepts of men and women were studied differently, in particular, within the analytical and socio-psychological aspects, and each concept was studied within four conceptual intra, extra and quasi-intra, quasi-extra zones. For example, the diagram above provides analysis of male and female concepts in three languages in an evaluative aspect. At the core of the nominative field of the concept “female” units such as grown-up girls (princesses, fairies, poor girls, sisters), women (bride, rival wives, mother and stepmother), and dame (old woman). At the core of the nominative field of the concept “man” such linguistic tools as young man (prince, son of the poor, brother), man (king, spouse, father) and old man (judge, Hizr) are included.

We now analyze the associative field of units at the core of concepts “male” and “female”. The nominative field “male” of the concept “male” includes the following association, for instance, in texts of the female narrators, princes are spoilt ones: Шаҳзода бир куни ухлаб ётиб, тушида бир парини кўрибди. Уйғонса, туши эмиш. Шундан кейин у парига кўнгил қўйиб, гапирмабди ҳам, кулмабди ҳам. Подшо ўғлининг аҳволига ачиниб йиғлабди / In texts of the English and Italian male narrators, princes are found brave (When Prince heard that he was supposed to slay the dragon, he wasn’t even worried....

The denotation “(poor) young man” is mainly associated with boldness in both sex texts: Девлар бирин-кетин ғордан чиқа бошлабдилар, Ҳотам ғордан чиққан биринчи девнинг калласини узиб ташлабди. Қолган девларнинг ҳам бирма-бир калласини олиб ташлай берибди; Quindi la giovane prese l'uovo, lo colpì sulla fronte della fata e cadde morta. Quando la giovane vide che era davvero morta, entrò in una carrozza con la figlia del re e guidò fino al palazzo.

Quaziextrazone is built through the image of “young man — a hard worker” by 20/1047 (Work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, All; Giovane ozioso, vecchio bisognoso; Йигит ҳусни меҳнатда), and the quasi-intrazone is formed with cognitive image “a man of his word” through various phraseologisms and proverbs, such as a man's man, man to man, essere pieno di sicurezza, бир сўзли, дегани деган, Йигит сўзи- битта.

The gestalt “brothers — tyrants” was found only in the intrazone of the Italian and Uzbek men's texts: Quindi uccisero il fratello minore, lo seppellirono e presero la piuma dal padre, dicendo che l'avevano trovata; Йўлда иккала акаси укасини ўлдиришга маслаҳат қилибди. Укасининг кўзини ўйиб, бир чуқурга ташлаб келган эканлар.

Cognitive images with negative connotation, such as the “husband- sponger” and “fathers- passive” are found only in texts pertaining to women: Кароматхон чиқса, Саломатхон экан. У ҳам кириб йиғлаб юборди. Саломатхон ҳам ёмон аҳволда қолибдир, уни ҳам эри эри мол-мулкини еб, уриб ҳайдаб юборибди / Отаси кейинги хотинининг гапига кирар экан;

Proverbs such as babbo e mamma non campano sempre / Онанг ўгай бўлса, отанг ўзингникимас/ ота бўлиш осон, оталик қилиш қийин can easily form extrazone. However, in the English folkloric texts belonging to both men and women collectors “father- head of family” can be a part of quasi-intrazone: …thereupon the man picked up the hammer and nails which he had with him, and ran to the spot from whence the outcry came. Quasi-extrasone also includes proverbs that lead to the creation of the image of the “father-supplier” in women’s texts: A father is a treasure; a brother is a comfort; A padre avaro, figliolo prodigo;

Ҳайдар, отанг ўлибдир, моли сенга қолибдир.

Боланг сувга оқибдир, шамолингни қўйвор.

In our research, it was found that women’s texts were less popular and few in number than men’s texts. For example, English folklore texts narrated and written by women were 53: 7 more than men's, Italian folklore texts 50: 4, and Uzbek texts 53:11. Therefore, in order to obtain objective results from practical analyzes, we selected texts narrated by women by at least one-third of the men’s texts. Male protagonists can be found in texts of both sexes, but it was found that female protagonists did not participate at all in 26% of English, 20% of Italian, and finally 25% of Uzbek folklore texts narrated and collected by men.

Список литературы

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