Место морфонологии в морфологической типологии языков

№126-1,

филологические науки

Морфонология — это раздел лингвистики, который в основном занимается комбинаторной фонической модификацией морфем. Морфология изучает ряд чередований, выполняющих морфологическую функцию. Звуковые вариации слов, их производные и грамматические формы слов или известные как звуковые вариации.

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Introduction

This article explores morphonological alternations in different system of languages comparative- typological point of view. Morphonology has its own place in linguistics now. Morphonology (also morpho phonemics, morphonology) is a branch of linguistics which studies, in general, the interaction between morphological and phonetic process. When a morpheme is attached to a word, it can alter the phonetic environments of other morphemes in that word. Morphophonemics attempts to describe this process. A languages morphophonemic structure is generally described with a series of rules which, ideally, can describe every morphophonemic alternation that takes place in language.

The aim of this article is to present to different approaches to allomorph as regards its phonological implications. After introducing the most important morphonological rules of the English language. I will proceed to analysing the “Underlying Representations” on which these rules are based. Thus, following the theories first presented by I.A. Baudoin de Courtany, I will focus on the research of N.S. Trubetzkoy who defined defined it as 1) a part of word phonology which studies the phonological structure of morphemes, as 2) a division of grammar, as 3) a linking branch between morphonology and phonology Among these definitions the first and the third can be accepted many phonologists assumed that neutralizing rules generally applied before allophonic rules.

The field learning and functions of morphonology became a wide enough last years. Now there is no doubt that the functions of morphomology who N.S. Trubetzkoy mentioned very wide

Today, the English language learning is of primary importance in Uzbekistan, as long is it an international language of communication for more than 2 billion people in the world.

Theory of morphonological alternations is very important in further development of linguistics.It has contributed to the formation of a new Branch of linguistics –morphonology which is defined differently by various linguists. Speech sound i.e phones representing phonemes are compined in strict order to form words,morphemes,word-combinations and sentences which influence each other,as a result of which their articulatory-acoustic features may be changed and modified.These changes in pronunticiation,which depend on the way they influence one another,their position and stress are called combinatory-positional changes.

Morphonological alternations. The types of alternations.

The sound variations in words, their derivatives and grammatical forms of words, are known as sound alternations.

It is perfectly obvious that sound alternations of this type are caused by assimilation, accommodation and reduction in speech. For example: the dark [ł] in spell alternates with the clear [l] in spelling. Vowel alternations are the result of the reduction in unstressed positions: e.g. combine (n) [‘kQmbain], combine [kəm’baIn] where [Q] in the stressed syllable of the noun alternates with the neutral sound in the unstressed syllable of the verb. To approach the matter from the phonological viewpoint, it is important to differentiate phonemic and allophone alternations. Some sound alternations are traced to the phonemic changes in earlier periods ofthe language development and are known as historical. Historical alternations mark both vowels and consonants, though the alternating sounds are not affected by the phonemic position or context. The sound changes, which occurred in the process of historical development of the language, are reflected in present-day English as alternations of phonemes differentiating words, their derivatives and grammatical forms. The following list of examples presents the types of alternations:

1. Distinction of irregular verbal forms:

[i: — e — e]: mean — meant — meant

[I — V– V]: dig — dug — dug

[ai — @u — I]: write — wrote — written

2. Distinction of causal verbal forms:

[I — e]: sit — set

[ai — ei]: rise — raise

[O: — e] fall — fell

3. Distinction of singular and plural forms of nouns:

[æ — e]: man — men

[U — i:]: foot — feet

[u: — i:]: tooth — teeth

4. Distinction of parts of speech in etymologically correlated words:

[i: — e]: feast — festive

[a: — æ]: class — classify

[Q — e]: long — length

Morphonological Alternations of Vowels

Verb-Noun: abide [əʹbaid ]-яшамок — abode [ə'boud] -яшаш жойи [ai] — [ou]; live [lIv]-яшамок-life [laif] -хаёт [1] — [ai]; bite [bait]-тишламок — bit [bit]-кисм [ai] — [1]; imagine [l'maedDin]- тасаввур килмок — image ['imid3] — тасаввур [se] — [1]; bleed [bli:d]-конга беланмок — blood [blʌd]-кон [1:] — [ʌ]; lose [lu:z] — loss-йукотмок [los]-йукотиш [u:] — [Ͻ]; confide [kən'faid]-ишонмок — confidence ['konfidəns] -ишонч [ai] — [1]; decline [di'klain]-пастламок — declension [di'klenʃən] -пасайиш [ai] — [e]; dine [daIn]-тyшлик килмок dinner ['dinə] — тушлик [ai] — [1]; reach [ri:tʃ]-чyзмок — retch [retʃ]-чузиш [1:] — [e]; feed [fi:d]-овкатлантирмок — food [fu:d] -овкат [1:] — [u:]; breathe [bri:ð]-нафас олмок — breath [breθ ]-нафас [ı:] — [e]; tell [tel]-xикоя айтмок-tale [teil]-xикоя [e] — [eı]; defreeze [ʹdı:frı:z]-музлатмок — defroster [dı:ʹfrϽstə]-музлатма [ı:] — [Ͻ]; bathe

[beıð]-чумилтирмок — bath [ba:θ ]- чумилиш [eı] — [a:]; deride [di'raid]-ycтидан кулмок — derision [di'riɜn]- кулги [ai] — [1]; gold [‘gould]-олтин — gild [gıld] — олтин билан копламок [Ͻu] — [1]; abstain [əb'steın] -тиймок — abstention [əb'stenʃn]-тийиш [ei] — [e]; accede [æk 's1:d]-лавозимга тайинламок — accession [ækʹseʃən]-лавозимга утириш [1:] — [е]; know [nou]-билмок — knowledge ['nϽl1dʒ]- билим [Ͻu] — [Ͻ]; abound [ə'baund] куп булмок — abundance [ə'bʌndəns] -мул куллик [au]

Adjective-Verb full [ful]-тулик — fill [f1l]-тулдирмок [fil] — [1]; hot [hϽt] иссик heat [h1:t]- иситмок [C] -[1]; staunch [stϽ:ntʃ]-ишончли — stanch [sta:ntʃ]-содик булмок [Ͻ:] — [a:];

Adjective- Noun- hot [hϽt]-иссик — heat [hi:t]-иситиш [Ͻ] — [1]; deep [d1:p]-чyкyp — depth [dерθ ]-чукурлик [1:] — [e]; strong [strϽ η] -кучли — strength [streηgθ] — куч [Ͻ] — [e]; wise [waiz]-доно — wisdom ['wizdəm]- донишмандлик [a1] — [1]; broad [brϽ:d] -кенг — breadth [bredθ] — кенглик [Ͻ:] — [e]; estimable [est1məbl] — хурматли — esteem [1s't1:m] — хурмат [1] — [1:]

Noun- Adjective type [taıp] -тип — typical [tıpıkəl] -типли [aı] — [1] nature [neıtʃə] — табиат — natural [neıtʃrəl] -табиий [eı] — [æ]

Noun- Other Noun: weft [weft] -газлама — woof [wu:fj -газлама [e] — [u:]; coal [koul] -кумир -collier [ʹkϽlıə] -кумирчи [ou] — [Ͻ]; clinch [klıntʃ] -букмок — clench [klentʃ] -букиш [ı] — [e]; cluck [klʌk] -какагkаш — clack [klæk] -савсата [ʌ] — [æ]; incline [in’klaın] -кия — inclination [ʹinclıneıʃn] -киялик [ai] — [ı]; jab [dϽæb]-уруш — job [dʒϽb] -бирдан уриш [æ] — [Ͻ]; pudge [pʌdϽ] -бакалок; — podge [pϽdʒ] -бакалок; [ʌ] — [Ͻ]; shade [ʃeıd] -соя — shadow ['ʃædou] -соя [eı]

- [æ]; tyrant ['taıərant] -тиран — tyranny ['tırəni] -золимона хукмронлик [aı] — [ı];

droop {dru:p] -букчайганлик — drop [drϽp] -пасайиш [u:] — [Ͻ]; shard [ʃa:d] — сопол парчаси — sherd [ʃə:d] -чинни парчаси [a:] — [ə:]; slush [ slush] — шалоплаш -slosh [slϽʃ] -сув сепиш [ʌ] — [Ͻ]; snath [snæθ] -чалги дастаси — snathe [sneið] -белурок дастаси [æ] — [ei]; vendor [vendϽ:] -сотувчи —vender [vendə] -сотувчи [Ͻ:] — [ə]; visor ['vaizə] -соябон — visard [vizəd] -соябон [ai] — [ı]; yolk [jϽulk] -тухум сариги — yelk [jelk] -тухум сариги [Ͻu] — [e]; fount [faunt] -манба, чашма — font [fϽnt] — чашма, булок [au] — [Ͻ]; firth [fə:θ] -этак — frith [friθ] -кесик, новда [ə:] — [1]; griffin ['griffin] -курикловчи — griffon ['grifən] –гриф [ı] — [ə]

Morphonological Alternations of Consonants

Verb-Noun descend [di'send] -тушмок — descent [dı 'sent] -тушиш [d] — [t]; intrude [in'tru:d] -бостириб кирмок — intrusion [ın'tru:ʒən] -хужум [d] — [ʒ]; join [dʒϽin] -боглаш — joint [dʒϽint] -богламок [Ø] — [t]; intend [in'tend] — — хохламок — intent [in'tent] -хохиш [d] — [t]; preclude [pri'klu:d] -олдини олмок — preclusion [рri'klu:ʒen]-олдини олиш [d] — [ʒ]; diffuse [di'fju:s] -таркатмок — diffusion [difu:ʒən]-таркаш, таркалиш[s]; — [ʒ]; wreathe [ri:ð] -гулчамбар килмок — wreath [ri:θ] -тукма [ð] — [θ]; defend [di'fend] -химоя килмок — defence [di'fens] -химоя [d] — [s]; refuse [ri'fju:z] -рад килмок — refuse ['refju:s]-рад [z] — [s]; relieve [ri:liv] -енгиллаштирмок — relief [ri:lif] — енгиллатиш [v] — [f]; bounce [bauns] -сакрамок bound [baund] — сакраш [s] — [d]; evict [1(:)'vikt] -кучириб юбормок — eviction [l'vikʃən] –кучириш [t] — [ʃ]; grow [grϽu]-усмок — growth [grouθ]-усиш[Ø] — [θ]; speak [spi:k] -гапирмок — speech [spi:tʃ] -нутк [k] — [tʃ]; describe [dis'kraib] -тасвирламок — description [dis'kripʃn] -тасвир [b] — [p]; smudge[smʌdʒ] кир булмок, дог булмок -smutch [smʌtʃ] -кир, дог [dʒ] — [tʃ]; complain [kəm'plein] -шикоят килмок — complaint [kəm'pleint] — шикоят [Ͻ]- [t]; conclude [kən'klu:d] -тугатмок — conclusion [kən'klu:ʒn]-тугаллаш, хулоса [d] — [ʒ]; intend [in'tend] -хохламок — intention [in'tenʃn] — хохиш [d] — [ʃ]; deceive [di'si:v] -алдамок — deception [di'sepʃən] -алдаш [v] — [p]

Adjective-Noun: dependent [di'pendənt] -карам, тобе —dependency [di'pendənsi] -карамлик, тобелик [t] — [s]; direct [di':rekt] -тугри — direction [di'rekʃn] — йуналиш [t] — [ʃ]; 'distant [distənt] -узок — distance ['distəns] -масофа, узоклик [t] — [s]; respondent [ris'pϽndent] -жавобгар — response [ris'рϽons]-жавоб берувчи

[d] — [s]; precise [priʹsaiz] аник — precision [pri'siɜən] — аниклик [z] — [ʒ]; concise [kən'sais] -киска —concision [kən’siɜən] -кискариш [s] — [ʒ]

The mostly vowels than consanants of morphonological alternations take part within the morpheme in English.

Морфонологик алмашинувларда иштирок этувчи ундошларнинг купчилиги жарангли — жарангсиз (кучсиз — кучли, lenes — fortes) корреляциясидаги жуфтлардан ташкил топган. Масалан: descend /di'send/ — 'descent /di 'sent/ /d/ — /t/ пастга тушмок — пастга тушган (ут.з.), bath /ba:θ/ — bathe /beið/ /θ/ — /ð/ «чумилиш — чумилмок», shelf /ʃelf/ — shelves /ʃelvəz/ /f/ — /v/ «токча — токчалар» каби.

Morphonological Alternations in within root morpheme

Инглиз тилида бу хусусият анча кенг таркалган, улардан баъзиларини мисол келтирамиз: intend [in’tend] -хохламок- intent [in’tent] — хохиш — [d] — [t]; blood [blʌd] -кон -bleed [bli:d] — конга беланмок — [ʌ] — [1:]; bath [ba:θ] — чумилиш — bathe [beið] — чумилтирмок — [θ] — [ð]; breath [breθ] — нафас — breathe [bri:ð] — нафас олмок — [θ]- [ð]; betide [bi'taid] — содир булмок — betid [bitid] — содир булди — [ai] — [id]; complain [kæmʹplein]-шикоят килмок -complaint [kæmʹpleint] шикоят-[Ø] — [t]; deal [‘di:l] -таркатмок — dealt [‘di:lt] -таркатилди, таркалди — [Ø] — [t]; decline [di' klain] пастламок — declension [di’klenʃən] — пасайиш — [ai] — [e]; define [di' fain] аникламок — definite [‘definit] — аник — [ai] — [1]; descend [diʹsend]-тушмок — descent [di’sent] — тушиш — [d] — [t]; deep [‘di:p]-чукур — depth [depθ] — чукурлик — [Ø] — [θ]; dream [dri:m]-туш курмок — dreamt [dremt] — туш курди -[ Ø] — [t]; foot [fut] — feet [fi:t] — [u] — [1:] — оёк-оёклар; goose [gu:s] — geese [gi:s] — [u:] — [1:] — гоз-гозлар; have [hæv] — has [hæz] — [v] — [z] — «бор» феълининг куплик ва бирлик шакли; image [' imidʒ] — imagine [iʹmædʒin] — [i] — [ае] — тасаввур-тасаввур килмок; join [dʒϽin] — joint [dʒϽint] — [Ø] — [t] — кушмок-кушма; lead [li:d]-led [led] — [1:] — [е]-«рахбарлик килмок» феълинииг хозирги ва утган замон шакллари; mouse [maus] — mice [mais] — [au] — [ai] — сичкон- сичконлар; shelf [ʃelf] — shelves [ʃelvz] — [f] — [v] — токча-токчалар; send [send] — sent [sent] — [d] — [t] — «юбормок» феълинииг хозирги ва утган замон шакллари; shoot [shu:t] — shout [ʃaut] [u:] — [au] — шовкин килмок-шовкин; shade [ʃeid] — shadow [ʃædou] [ei] — [æ] — соя килмок-соя; speak [spi:k] — speech [spi:tʃ] [k] — [tj] — сузламок, гапирмок — нутк;

We can established a lot of morphonological alternations in word formatin in Russian than English.

Alternations of Vowels in Russian

  1. Verb-Noun: счесть-счёт /е/ — /о/
  2. Adjective-Verb: глухой-глохнуть /у/ — /о/, сухой-сохнуть /у/ — /о/
  3. Adjective-Noun: чёрный-чернь /о/ — /е/
  4. Noun-Other Noun горшок-горшечник /о/ — /е/
  5. tranzitive — intranzitive Verb: запросить-запрашивать /о/ — /е/, просмореть-просматривать /о/ — /е/, созвать-созывать /Ø/ — /и/.

Alternation of Consanant in Russian

  1. Verb-Noun: бродить-брожение /д/ — /ж/, исказить-искажение /з/ — /ж/, известить-извещение /ст/ — /ш/, светить-свечение /т/ — /ч/, повысить-повышение /с/ — /ш/, править-правление /в/ — /вл/, сватать-свадьба /т/- /д/
  2. Noun-Adjective книга-книжный /г/ — /ж/, песок-песочный /к/ — /ч/, пух- пушной /х/ — /ш/, девица-девичий /ц/ — /ч/
  3. short form of Adjective — От: ряб-рябь /б/ — /бʹ/, сед-седь /д/ -/дʹ/, гол-голь /л/ — /лʹ/, дан-дань, герн-гернь /н/ — /нʹ/, хвор-хворь, стар-старь /р/ — /рʹ/, желт-желть, крут-круть, нечист-нечисть /т/ — /т'/, дик-дичь /к/ — /ч/, сух-сушь, глух-глушь, тих-тишь /х/ — /ш/
  4. tranzitive — intranzitive verb: разгладить-разглаживать /д/ — /ж/, разносить-разнашивать /с/ — /ш/, поворотить-поворачивать /т/ -/ч/, заморозить-замораживать /з/ — /ж/, вырастить-выращивать /ст/ — /ш/
  5. Noun-Nouns друг-дружок /г/ — /ж/, пух-пушок /х/ — /ш/, бык-бычок /к/ — /ч/, ноготь-ноготок /т'/ — /т/, муха-мушка /х/ — /ш/, церковь-церковка /в'/ — /в/

Sound variations in words, their derivatives and grammatical forms of words are known as sound alternations. It is obvious that sound alternations are caused by assimilation, accommodation and reduction in speech. Alternations of consonants are mainly due to contextual assimilations. It will be said to be in their strong position before vowels and in the intervocalic Historical alternations distinguish grammatical forms of words and lexical units in the process of word-building.

Sound alternations are also widely spread on the synchronical level in the present-day English and are known as contextual.

We are interested now in the sound in its weak position. Vowels are said to be in their strong position when they are in stressed syllables and in the weak position when they are in the unstressed ones. Consonants may position; they are in weak positions when they are word final or proceed other consonants.

The so-called morphological school represented by Soviet philologists R.I.Avanesov, V.P.Sidorov, P.S.Kuznetsov, A.A.Reformatsky supported the theory of neutralization of phonemes. The loss of one or more distinctive features of a phoneme in the weak position is called phonemic neutralization. In English, the voicing opposition is neutralized after the initial [s].

The so-called Leningrad phonological school (L.V.Shcherba and his followers L.R.Zinder, M.I.Matusevitch) assert that the phoneme is independent of the morpheme. So [A] in вода belongs to the [a] phoneme while [o] in воды to the [o] phoneme. The supporters of this conception claim that the phoneme cannot lose any of its distinctive features.

N.S.Trubetskoy (the Prague phonological school) arrived at an original solution of the phonemic status of a sound in alternations. To overcome the difficulty he introduced a broader phonological unit than a phoneme and named it an archiphoneme. An archiphoneme is defined as a combination of distinctive features common to two phonemes

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