Роль контаминации модальности и отрицания в рамках вопросительного предложения

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Данная статья посвящена роли контаминации и отрицания модальности в вопросительном предложении. Вопросительные предложения выражают особую форму мысли — вопрос; их коммуникативная задача состоит не в передаче информации, а в побуждении к получению информации.

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In modern linguistics, a significant place is occupied by the study of the functional and communicative aspects of linguistic phenomena, there is a growing interest in the pragmatic aspect of language. However, the problem of the relationship between meaning and its expression still remains in the focus of linguists' attention. The interrogative sentence, being one of the linguistic units complex in its structure, is of particular interest in this respect. The problem of characterizing interrogative sentences in Uzbek linguistics has not yet been touched upon. This dissertation research is the first experience of a systematic study of interrogative syntactic structures and ways of expressing a question in the Uzbek language. In this case, the main emphasis is on the communicative, formal and functional-semantic aspects of interrogative statements. This work should also be, according to the author, a step for further research, a step towards the beginning of a systematic study of various levels of the syntax of the Uzbek language as a whole, including the syntax of colloquial speech. In descriptive grammars of Turkic languages, the division of sentences into declarative, interrogative, motivating and exclamatory takes a very modest place. This is a small island in the vast system of described linguistic facts. At the same time, looking closely at the principles that underlie the indicated division of sentences, and in particular at the understanding of what an interrogative sentence is, we see that the most cardinal problems of grammar in general are touched upon here. In this focus, many common problems intersect and astounding paradoxes arise that have long attracted the attention of everyone who has been involved in the study of language and speech in one way or another. The results of this study will help to obtain material for broader conclusions that are important for understanding the structure of any sentence.

After all, it is precisely this circumstance that has always aroused increased interest in the problem of the question and interrogative sentences. Interrogative sentences in the Uzbek language are a large and heterogeneous class of sentences in terms of formal arrangement, semantics and communicative function. They usually contain a question aimed at encouraging the interlocutor to express a thought that interests the speaker. The means of formalizing interrogative sentences in the Uzbek language are varied. These include grammatical, lexical and prosodic means. The grammatical means of expressing a question in the studied language include: a) an interrogative particle -we (in ascertaining-interrogative, presumably-interrogative, motivating-interrogative sentences, in questions-reflections, as well as in expressive-negative and expressive-affirmative interrogative sentences), taking a post predictable position and indicating the interrogative nature of the sentence; b) modal particle -holes in presumptive interrogative and affirmative interrogative sentences. The lexical means of expressing a question include interrogative words.

Prosodic means (mainly raising or lowering the direction of the main tone), acting as exponents or attitudes "ignorance" and denoting the subject of the question (for example, in ascertaining interrogative sentences, or attitudes "desire to know" (in modal-interrogative, in informing and in some other interrogative sentences. The means of expressing the question, specifically — the means of expressing the attitude "ignorance" (designating the subject of the question), realizing their functions in a sentence and interacting with its structural components, act as the communicative center of the statement. But in a number of cases it is necessary to resort to other means of actualization, namely, to special morphemes, positional and intonational means. Means of the pragmatic level of the sentence also play an important role in the formation of various functional types of interrogative sentences, mostly improperly interrogative. These include, first of all, the factors of the conditions of speech consultation.

According to our observations, each of the types of interrogative sentences operates mainly with its own complex of means, with an already established composition participating in the expression of the seme «desire to know». So, for example, a private question sentence contains in its composition mainly an interrogative pronominal word, which, taking the position of an unknown component in the sentence, is a means of expression, first of all, the setting "ignorance". The «desire to know» in these interrogative sentences is expressed either only by an interrogative pronominal word, or by a combination of an interrogative pronominal word with positional and intonational means [Dolgova 1999: 14]. In the modern Uzbek language, along with proper interrogative sentences, there are also improper interrogative sentences.

The class of improperly interrogative sentences in the Uzbek language includes interrogative and affirmative; interrogative negative; interrogative-motivating; interrogative rhetorical; interrogative emotional sentences. The proper interrogative sentences contain a question that requires a mandatory answer.

A feature of interrogative-affirmative sentences is the presence in them of particles -chi or -dir, which by the content of the question to the interlocutor dispose to the mental emergence of the answer. In interrogatively negative sentences, what is being asked is denied.

In interrogative and motivating sentences, a motivation for action is expressed through a question. Interrogative-rhetorical sentences do not imply an answer; they contain an affirmative or negative answer in the question itself. Rhetorical questions have text-forming functions. The content of the question in interrogative-emotional sentences is distinguished by the presence in them of additional emotional shades of surprise, bewilderment, doubt, etc.

Formally (in syntactic constructions, means of expressing a question) the second class does not differ from the first, but intonation, consituation, lexical content, the addressee of speech change the function of interrogation into a non-interrogative function and semantically the second — improperly interrogative class differs from proper interrogative sentences, forming the above types. Interrogative sentences play an important role in the organization of inner speech, opening the author's state of mind. An exchange of views is impossible without interrogative sentences, therefore the dialogue is based on a sequence: question-answer. When creating the first and second types of speech, the interrogative sentence functions actively. Interrogative can be simple one-part and two-part, complex (compound, compound and non-union) sentences, a complex syntactic whole and sentence chains. Inseparable (word-sentences), vocal sentences are also highlighted. In the Uzbek language, chains of interrogative sentences and periods of questions are used more often in the inner speech of the lyric hero. Interjections and appeals introduce emotionality into interrogative statements and sometimes transform the primary function of interrogative sentences into a secondary one.

Interrogative sentences express a special form of thought — a question; their communicative task is not to convey information, but to induce to receive information. That is why, in modern syntactic science, the division of sentences according to a communicative attitude is taken as an opposition on the basis of non-questioning / questioning. On this basis, all sentences are divided into non-interrogative ones, the communicative task of which is associated with the transfer of information, etc., and interrogative, the communicative task of which is related to the receipt of information. These two views are represented by opposed functional types. At the same time, an interrogative sentence should be considered a marked member of this opposition, which, while retaining structural features common with a declarative sentence, acquires an interrogative function and can differ from a declarative sentence only in intonation. This allows us to understand the interrogative sentence as a transformation of the narrative one and oppose non-interrogative and interrogative sentences. Along with common features (emotionality, structure), interrogative and declarative sentences also differ in function: the purpose of the actual interrogative sentence is to aim at receiving information, an answer, and the purpose of the narrative sentence is to convey a message. Actually interrogative sentences are constructions that really await an answer; in this regard, they are opposed to rhetorical interrogative and interrogative-motivating sentences. Not every sentence that is interrogative in form contains a question. Along with sentences containing the lexical means of expressing the question, in the Uzbek language interrogative sentences are often found that are formed without these means: the question is expressed in them through interrogative intonation with an increase in voice in the word with which the question is associated. However, interrogative sentences formulated in this way in the Uzbek language are of little use. This leads to difficulties in the design of the Russian interrogative sentence. For a deeper assimilation of the typology and structure of interrogative sentences in the classroom, it is necessary to use the texts of works of fiction, which will allow students, albeit with certain difficulties, to evaluate the interrogative sentence as a transformation of the narrative and oppose non-interrogative and interrogative sentences. Consciously assimilating this circumstance, students for the most part characterize interrogative sentences as structural and syntactic units containing a question aimed at encouraging the interlocutor to express a thought that interests the speaker. Having significant differences, all three types of questions may differ not only in form, but also in content. Rhetorical and meditative questions reveal an element of meaning inherent in interrogative sentences proper — the meaning of a lack of information, which is made up with the help of context or the use of 'special structural schemes with a generalized personal meaning. So, — the structure of the sentence of a rhetorical question does not lose the ability to express the actual interrogative meaning. It is necessary to rely not only on the semantics, intonation and structure of the question, but also on the content of the context that reveals the meaning of the interrogative sentence. A distinctive feature of the interrogative sentences of the Uzbek language of all types is the obligatory interrogative intonation, it is inherent in all questions and is one of the means of expressing the question, and the only one if there are no other lexical and grammatical means. In other words, any communicative-functional type of sentence in the Uzbek language can be transformed into an interrogative one only with the help of intonation.

Thus, in the Uzbek language, we identified classes of proper-interrogative and improper-interrogative sentences, defined the types of interrogative sentences of these classes; the means of expressing the question, the role of modal words, addresses, interjections and service parts of speech in this are considered; syntactic constructions of interrogative sentences. In terms of meaning and structure, interrogative sentences are divided into pronouns and non-pronouns. Pronoun interrogative sentences express a special question. They include an interrogative pronoun (pronominal adverb) of the type Kim? not, Qayerda? Qachon? etc., which in the answer is replaced by a non-pronoun expressing the required information. A reply offer most often contains only this information and in this case is incomplete.

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Список литературы

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Мухамедова, Н.А. Роль контаминации модальности и отрицания в рамках вопросительного предложения / Н.А. Мухамедова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 130. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/18928 (дата обращения: 22.01.2022).