Значения и функции модальности в лингвистике

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Данная статья посвящена значениям и функциям модальности в языкознaнии. Наши результаты, основанные на корпусном исследовании, являются целенаправленно количественными и качественными, поскольку мы стремимся выяснить, какие семантические типы типов модальных глаголов преобладают в каждой регистровой области.

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Learning the system of modal verbs in English is a long and complex process. During this period, views on the content of teaching modal verbs changed significantly. Within the framework of the structural approach, they were considered from the point of view of their "defectiveness" and formal structural features. The development of semantics directed the attention of researchers to the study of the meanings of modal verbs, their connections and interactions. An in-depth study of the semantic side has led to a closer attention to the stylistic features of the system of modal verbs.

The term modality is used to refer to a wide range of heterogeneous consumers. The sphere of modality includes possible groups of values.

  1. Opposition on the basis of reality — unreality, cf. He became world champion (real modality) and became world champion (surreal modality). This is the so-called "objective" modality, which includes the grammatical category of mood — namely, the opposition of indicatives against the subjunctive mood;
  2. Contrasting statements by illocutionary force (in traditional terminology, this is «a type of sentence for the purpose of the statement»): statements and sentences can be narrative, incentive, interrogative: The children are gone; Children, go away!; Have the children gone? Accordingly, they speak of affirmative (assertive), incentive and interrogative "illocutionary modality". There are also more particular illocutionary types. The illocutionary force is expressed by mood (in particular, imperative), interrogative words and particles, intonation and many constructions of "small syntax";
  3. The sphere of modality also includes meanings that express the attitude of the speaker to what he reports, i.e. the speaker's psychological or mental attitude, propositional attitude, or attitude of the mind, for example, desirability, hypotheticality, doubt, and under. This is the so-called "subjective modality", see [Vinogradov 1975]; [Grammar 1980(II): 214–236]. Subjective-modal meanings are expressed by the subjunctive mood in the optative (desirable) meaning as well as: introductory words and phrases, special constructions, particles and interjections, word order and intonation. All these grammes, words and constructions in their semantics presuppose the speaker — while the speaker is not an explicitly expressed subject with them: Oh, and rain! It's raining, it's raining! And it's raining! Rain and rain! It was still raining! It must be rain! It must be rain! These meanings are often expressively colored. As a synonym, you can use the term installation modality;
  4. Starting with Aristotle, it is customary to call modal the meanings of opportunity (You can get to the station by tram) and necessity (You must help her). In Russian, possibility and necessity are expressed lexically (verbs, predicatives, introductory words, particles), as well as constructions, primarily infinitive ones: ', need). There are languages (e.g. Hungarian, Japanese) where similar meanings are expressed morphologically.

So, we can distinguish three spheres of modality in the Russian language — objective, subjective and illocutionary. It is these three spheres of modality that differ in general in the languages of the world, they are called, respectively, objective, subjective and intersubjective.

As for the meanings of ‘possibility’ and ‘necessity’, in a number of European languages, verbs expressing possibility and necessity are called modal and belong to the sphere of grammar due to their morphological features, so that the meanings they express are assigned to grammatical modality automatically. In Russian, indicators of possibility and necessity are not morphologically distinguished by anything.

However, in Russian these words also belong to the sphere of grammatical modality, since they have special syntactic reflexes. In particular, indicators of possibility and necessity imply, in some usages, an egocentric modal subject that is different from the subject (in [Palmer 2001: 435] it is noted that the appearance of the speaker as the subject of a modal indicator indicates the grammaticalization of the indicator). Another possible syntactic reflex of the lexical modal indicator is syntactic insubordination, this is also the basis for considering a lexical unit with a modal meaning as an object of grammar.

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Список литературы

  1. Austin J.L. “How to Do Things with Words”. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1962.
  2. Dobrushina N.R. “Subjunctive complement clauses in Russian”. Russian Linguistics, 36(2) . 2012.
  3. Mukhamedova N.A. “The pragmatic potential of semantics of modal words”. NovaInfo 130, 2022
  4. Palmer F.R. Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2001. (1st ed. — 1986).


Исмаилова, Д.А. Значения и функции модальности в лингвистике / Д.А. Исмаилова, М.С. Саидова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 130. — С. 63. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/18990 (дата обращения: 05.10.2022).