Прагматический потенциал семантики модальных слов

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Аннотация

Данная статья посвящена прагматическому потенциалу семантики модальных слов. Изучение модальных слов преимущественно в грамматическом основном потоке привело к тому, что вопрос о лексическом значении модальных слов до сих пор не только не решен, но даже не обозначен достаточно четко.

Ключевые слова

СЕМАНТИКА, МОДАЛЬНЫЕ СЛОВА, ПРАГМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ, МОДЕМНЫЕ КАТЕГОРИИ

Текст научной работы

Modal words have recently come to the attention of the Russianists. In the 30-80s. XX century they were studied mainly in the systemic-grammatical aspect: their morphological status was investigated [Meshchaninov 1945, Vinogradov 1975, 1986, Bauder 1982], position in a sentence, participation in the design of syntactic relations [Amosova 1971, Anisimova 1982, Bondarenko 1977, Buglak 1987, Vasilenko 1985, Leont'eva 1985, etc.], the role of modal words in sentences of various communicative orientations [Anisimova 1981a, 19816], the relationship with introductory constructions [Nikitin 1949, Bauder 1982, etc.].

As a result of these studies, the idea of modal words as a special group of words was formed, the main function of which is to express the speaker's attitude to the content of the utterance.

In the 80-90s. XX century, due to the increased attention of linguists to the subjective aspect of the utterance, to the problem of the human factor in the language, Modal words were in their field of vision when studying the modem categories of the utterance [Vezhbitska 1978, Galaktionova 1995.].

In the 80-90s. XX century, due to the increased attention of linguists to the subjective aspect of the utterance, to the problem of the human factor in the language, Modal words were in their field of vision when studying the modem categories of the utterance [Vezhbitska 1978, Galaktionova 1995.].

In the aspect of studying the communicative act, it was revealed that Modal words are pragmatically significant elements of an utterance [Apresyan 1989, Baranov].

In addition, Modal words were considered as elements that explicate certain fragments of the speaker's picture of the world [Yakovleva 1994] and some properties of the linguistic personality [Perfilieva 1998a, Steksova and Tripolskaya 1990].

However, despite the achievements of linguistics in recent years, the traditional idea that modal (introductory) words are not associated with a sentence and can be removed without prejudice to the meaning of the statement still takes place in school and university practice.

The study of Modal words predominantly in the grammatical mainstream has led to the fact that the question of the lexical meaning of Modal words is still not only not resolved, but not even indicated clearly enough. Studies of modal words in the semasiological aspect have not been carried out.

The reason for this is probably the "intermediate" position of modal words in the system of parts of speech: they are not included in the sphere of interests of researchers of semantics of both significant and official words. In linguistic works, modal words are usually considered as syntactic means, while their meaning and function are actually identified. The consequence of this is an unsatisfactory description of the meaning of these units in lexicographic practice.

The question remains about how the semantics of modal words and the pragmatic functions they perform are related. According to M.V. Lapon, attention to the pragmatic aspect of relational units, which also include Modal words, is an indispensable condition for an adequate representation of their meanings in natural language [Lapon 19886: 81].

In the linguistic literature, there are interesting observations on some of the pragmatic possibilities of individual Modal words, but they do not have a semasiological basis and do not allow getting a holistic idea of the semantic and pragmatic potential of Modal words.

In linguistic literature, we have come across only one attempt to analyze the role of modal words in a literary text.

An attempt is made in the work to "fit" the study of Modal words into the semantic-functional paradigm of the study of the lexical meaning of full-valued words, thus to reveal the peculiarities of the semantics of Modal words and the system of their functions.

The semasiological approach to the study of Modal words can significantly complement the idea of their role in the utterance, and the identification of the system of pragmatic functions of Modal words can contribute to a more complete description of the communicative act.

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Список литературы

  1. Arutyunova N.D. On the problem of functional types of lexical meaning // Aspects of semantic research. M. 1980.S. 156-249.
  2. Arutyunova N.D. Modal and semantic operators // Image of the word: Collection of articles. articles in memory of D.N. Shmeleva. M., 1997.S. 22-41.
  3. Buglak S.I. Modal words and particles in different types of simple sentences of the Russian language, different in purposefulness: Author's abstract. dis. Cand. philol. sciences. L., 1987.
  4. Gak V.G. On the problem of semantic syntagmatics // Problems of structural linguistics. 1971, M. Nauka, 1972.S. 367-395.

Цитировать

Мухамедова, Н.А. Прагматический потенциал семантики модальных слов / Н.А. Мухамедова. — Текст : электронный // NovaInfo, 2022. — № 130. — URL: https://novainfo.ru/article/18926 (дата обращения: 22.01.2022).

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